It depends upon the security policies fixed by your domain.
After a machine joind to domain, there will be multiple registry changes.
For an example, if there are some domain-wide computer Group Policies are defined, the newly joined machine will apply these policies and corresponding registry key values will be changed.
At a high level, when you join a computer in AD, a computer account is created in the AD database that is used to authenticate the computer to the domain controller every time it boots up. Passwords for computer accounts are renewed automatically every 30 days by default. Authentication is done by Kerberos which uses port 88 TCP (and UDP older versions). Auditing and controlling access to resources can also be done by using computer accounts in AD.
Similar discussion here https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/ie/en-US/fb41d144-656f-4775-b64c-9354f6e7ccdb/what-happens-when-a-computer-joins-an-active-directory-domain?forum=winserverDS
Hope this resolves your Query !!
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