There are a couple of methods you can use to provide access to users-
- Provide them Storage Account Access Key, and they can use it to access File Share with rights on all folders and subfolders.
- PowerShell connect script from Share to connect it will also persist and save creds to the user profile level, and they will not be asked to put credentials again and can access all the folders and files.
Both methods are insecure as they contain a Storage account access key.
Apart from that, you can use Windows Credential Manager. Whenever we are using PowerShell script to access Share, it saves credentials in Control Panel - Credential manager to persist it, which is user profile based, so if you want to provide access without sharing Access Key, then export this Credential Manager profile from one user and share with another one who can import it without getting information of Access Key.