We do not need outbound calling for this service and as I understand the documentation a Teams Phone Standard-license and EnterpriseVoiceEnabled set to "True" should be enough.
Yes. Following the creation steps in the documentation does not mention the steps to assign licenses.
But according to your description, it seems that you are the agent who receives calls from the call queue. The agent that receives calls from the call queue must be an online user who is enabled for the enterprise language or a local user. For more details, see: Plan for Teams auto attendants and call queues.
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