Currently Azure authentication doesn't have an option to limit user's authentication for certain hours.
If you have users syncing from on-premise to Azure AD and if user authentication is configured for pass-through authentication then you can limit this.
To achieve this you can configure the access token to expire after certain time. Once the access token is expired, user will be asked to re-authenticate. you can also configure revoking of access token post certain hours using conditional access policy.
When access token is revoked and when user is asked to re-authenticate, user is asked to provide credentials again.
Authentication request will redirected to on-premises. Now in on-premises you will have to configure policy to stop authenticating users post certain time.
You can refer below article to configure access token revoking,
Let me know if you have any further questions on this.
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