Retrieving detailed information on the error
You can take advantage of various functions inside the CATCH block to get detailed information about an error.
These functions include the following:
ERROR_MESSAGE() - you can take advantage of this function to get the complete error message.
ERROR_LINE() - this function can be used to get the line number on which the error occurred.
ERROR_NUMBER() - this function can be used to get the error number of the error.
ERROR_SEVERITY() - this function can be used to get the severity level of the error.
ERROR_STATE() - this function can be used to get the state number of the error.
ERROR_PROCEDURE() - this function can be used to know the name of the stored procedure or trigger that has caused the error.
Refer below websites explained in detailed.
Error Handling in SQL Server with Try Catch
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