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NndnG avatar image
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NndnG asked Docs-4663 published

Extended disk diagnosis

Hi,

Related to disk diagnosis, I have some questions and all are related to each other. That’s why I am asking all questions in the single post.

Is it correct, in most cases, bad sectors issue is a software-based issue which can be resolved by various ways but removing all volumes and Windows installation are the best way?

We all know chkdsk is a well-known command for local disk diagnosis. Also, we all know parameters like

  • /f for fixes errors on the disk.

  • /r for locating bad sectors and recovering readable information.

  • /x for forcing the volume to dismount first, if necessary.

I read, the disk must be locked for using /f and /r.

Is chkdsk /f enough for resolving bad sector issue?

How does chkdsk /f work for resolving bad sectors and for how long it works?

What is locked disk here? How do I know, by default, disk is locked or unlocked?

Like locked disk, let me know about mounted and dismounted. And how do I know, by default, disk is mounted or dismounted?

What should be the ideal states of disk; locked or unlocked and mounted or unmounted?

In case of two disks (like SSD and HD), if Windows is installed in SSD and HD is partitioned in various volumes; can I diagnosis all volumes at the same time or can I diagnosis HD at the same time with a single command?

For disk diagnosis, chkdsk has been in use for long time. Does Windows offer any other advanced way for disk diagnosis?

Please resolve my all above questions.

With Regards
NndnG

windows-10-hardware-performance
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jiayaozhu-MSFT avatar image
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jiayaozhu-MSFT answered

Hi,

Thank you for your posting!

1) There are two types of bad sectors – hard and soft.

Hard bad sectors cannot be repaired in most cases. Besides, if the disk contains many soft bad sectors, always stuck or slow to load data on the computer, or your file system is severely corrupted, these soft-based bad sectors can hardly be repaired either.

The wise choice is to back up and save your data at first. Then, removing all volumes and Windows installation may be the best practice. Otherwise, you can just use chkdsk command. Here are two articles I found that can be helpful for you to better understand bad sector and how to repair it according to different scenarios:

https://www.auslogics.com/en/articles/bad-sector/

https://www.easeus.com/disk-copy/clone-resource/repair-a-bad-sector-in-windows-10-8-7.html#3

(Please note: Information posted in the given links are hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.)

2) It depends on what you want. Generally chkdsk /r not only does the same thing as chkdsk /f, but also checks the bad sectors on the hard disk and tries to recover the readable information. Running chkdsk /r also means that the chkdsk /f is run. However, running chkdsk /f will only check for logical disk errors, but not bad sectors.

Therefore, if you only want to check and correct logical disk errors in the file system, you can only run chkdsk /f command; if you want to find physical disk errors in the disk, you can use chkdsk /r command.

And you can type chkdsk /f /r or chkdsk /r /f, or even chkdsk E: /f /r /x , to use them altogether as a combo to better fit your demands. There no much difference between chkdsk /f /r and chkdsk /r /f. They do the same thing but just in different order. Here are two articles that I think are helpful to you:

https://www.minitool.com/data-recovery/chkdsk-f-or-r.html

https://www.acronis.com/en-us/articles/chkdsk/

(Please note: Information posted in the given links are hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.)

3) As I have mentioned in 2), you can just run chkdsk /r command since it includes the /f function (p. s. while if you want to fix errors in file system, merely running /f command can save you a lot of time.).

The reason why the /f function is included in the /r function, is that the former runs to stage 3 while the latter runs the whole 5 stage. More information about the 5 stages for repairing bad sectors:

https://www.acronis.com/en-us/articles/chkdsk/

(Please note: Information posted in the given link is hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.)

With regards of the working hour about /f command, it depends on many things, like overall PC speed, number of files and folders on the disk, amount of RAM, and disk size.

For instance, the chkdsk process is usually completed in 5 hours for 1TB drives, and if you're scanning a 3TB drive, the required time triples. As we already mentioned, chkdsk scan can take a while depending on the size of the selected partition.

4) When you type chkdsk commands, you will know whether your disk is locked or not, and if it is unlocked, you can just type "y" and the scan is to take place:
87940-disk-chkdsk.jpg

5) If you're running Windows 10 or Windows 8, you can view all mounted drives in File Explorer. You can open File Explorer by pressing Windows key + E . In the left pane, select This PC, and all drives are shown on the right.
88007-disk-mounted.jpg



6) I suppose there is no ideal status for disk, to lock or not to lock, just depends on your own condition. The disk lock feature is concerned with computer security issue. To view this article:

https://managementmania.com/en/how-to-secure-hard-drive

Please note: Information posted in the given link is hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.

While for dismounted vs mounted, I may suggest you to mount your disk, which is an important step in your disk management, and only mounted disk will show in File Explorer.

7) After my research, you can conduct disk diagnosis at the same time but you need to open multiple instances of the command prompt and run chkdsk for each drive letter.

8) After research, I found 5 other ways that can be used to conduct disk diagnosis:

https://www.maketecheasier.com/check-hard-disk-health-windows/

(Please note: Information posted in the given link is hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.)

However, I am not sure if they are your advanced ways like chkdsk.

Thank you for your support!

Best regards
Joan


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Docs-4663 avatar image
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Docs-4663 answered Docs-4663 published

There are multiple methods to test drives:

SMART
Chkdsk
Full error / surface scan
Long DST
Long Generic
Benchmark


For chkdsk there are many switches:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/administration/windows-commands/chkdsk

One chkdsk command can check only one partition.
Some hidden partitions can have drive letters assigned to run chkdsk commands.


For bad sectors it is typically useful to view error / surface scans.


For drive bad sector workups these are useful tests:


1) Open administrative command prompt and type or copy and paste:
chkdsk /b /v
This may take hours to run so plan to run overnight.
Run on all drives using the syntax: chkdsk /b /v C: or chkdsk /b /v D: changing the drive letter to the applicable drive.

C:\Windows\system32>chkdsk /b /v
The type of the file system is NTFS.
Cannot lock current drive.

Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another
process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be
checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)

Type: Y
reboot


2) Use the information in this link to find the chkdsk report in the event viewer.
Copy and paste into notepad > save to desktop > post into the thread using a one drive, drop box, or google drive share link:
Read Chkdsk Log in Event Viewer in Windows 10 Windows 10 Performance Maintenance Tutorials
https://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/40822-read-chkdsk-log-event-viewer-windows-10-a.html


3) Run HD Tune (free version) (all drives)
https://www.hdtune.com/
Post images into the thread for results on these tabs:
a) Health
b) Benchmark
c) Full error scan


4) Run Sea Tools for Windows
long generic test
Post an image of the test result into the thread
http://www.seagate.com/support/downloads/seatools/seatools-win-master/
http://knowledge.seagate.com/articles/en_US/FAQ/202435en


5) Run HD Sentinel: (free or trial edition)
Hard Disk Sentinel - HDD health and temperature monitoring
https://www.hdsentinel.com/
For each drive post images of these tabs into the thread:
Overview tab
Temperature
SMART
Disk performance


6) Run Crystal Disk standard edition:
https://crystalmark.info/en/software/crystaldiskinfo/






https://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/163843-how-check-drive-health-smart-status-windows-10-a.html



These are examples of entries that may appear in the event viewer:


Event ID: 98 Volume D: (\Device\HarddiskVolume3) requires an Online Scan. An Online Scan will automatically run as part of the next scheduled maintenance task.
Alternatively you may run "CHKDSK /SCAN" locally via the command line, or run "REPAIR-VOLUME <drive:> -SCAN" locally or remotely via PowerShell.

Event ID: 55 A corruption was discovered in the file system structure on volume D:. The exact nature of the corruption is unknown. The file system structures need to be scanned online.

Event ID: 55 The file system structure on the disk is corrupt and unusable. Please run the chkdsk utility on the volume System OS.

Event ID: 153 The IO operation at logical block address 0x800 for Disk 0 (PDO name: \Device\Ide\IdeDeviceP0T0L0-0) was retried.

Event ID: 154 The IO operation at logical block address 0x155810 for Disk 1 (PDO name: \Device\00000035) failed due to a hardware error.



https://www.crucial.com/support/articles-faq-ssd/my-ssd-has-bad-sectors


https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-long-do-disk-drives-last/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-smart-stats/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-reliable-are-ssds/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/ssd-vs-hdd-future-of-storage/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hdd-versus-ssd-whats-the-diff/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/ssd-troubleshooting/
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/ssd-upgrade-guide/


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