Hi @natacat ,
I can reproduce the same issue in .NET Core Solution.
As the authencation way changed, this could affect to update Editor field to other values, seems the new CSOM libraray have some comptible issue with .NET Core solution.
You could submit a UserVoice in SharePoint Online Dev Platform about this issue:
And if possible, I suggest you could switch to .NET Framework instead of .NET Core to update author/editor field value.
If the response is helpful, please click "Accept Answer" and upvote it :)