@Raphael Schnizler Thanks for reaching out. I will suggest reviewing this document to get familiar with different logic app offerings.
Azure logic app offers different connectors and you can find the list in this document. The individual connectors document can provide you with more details on different triggers/actions available for that connector.
Not specific to the storage table but you can refer to this document which talks about the azure blob connector which can help you to understand configuration parameters while connecting to the storage account.
Feel free to get back to me if you need any assistance.