Yes, to both. These were (and still are) common alternatives to Azure Bastion. The main benefit to Azure Bastion is that it's a managed service, i.e. no VMs to maintain and it's quick and easy to set up but you can use whatever alternatives you wish. You also manage access to Azure Bastion through your Azure AD authentication with security features like MFA and conditional access.
Generally with the alternative options you are trading off cost for more maintenance and responsibility.