I've just re-tested the XamarinBasicSplashScreen app on 3 Samsung devices - Galaxy S20 5G Android 12, Galaxy S8 Android 12 and Galaxy Tab S7 Android 13. They all display the Xamarin.Android application icon. I've got no idea why your Galaxy Note 10 Lite will not display the same application icon.
A couple of questions though.
Do you do a cold start each time you launch the app? Please note, you will not see the icon on a warm start.
Are you building it as you downloaded it without any changes?
Have you modified it with your own icons?
You could try to uncomment the line System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(1000); in the MainActivity to introduce an artificial delay.