Authentication with Azure AD
Authentication is a process that grants or denies access to a system by verifying the accessor's identity. Use a managed identity service for all resources to simplify overall management (such as password policies) and minimize the risk of oversights or human errors. Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is the one-stop-shop for identity and access management service for Azure.
- Use Managed Identities to access resources in Azure.
- Keep the cloud and on-premises directories synchronized, except for high-privilege accounts.
- Preferably use passwordless methods or opt for modern password methods.
- Enable Azure AD conditional access based on key security attributes when authenticating all users, especially for high-privilege accounts.
Use identity-based authentication
How is the application authenticated when communicating with Azure platform services?
Managed identities enable Azure Services to authenticate to each other without presenting explicit credentials via code.
Managed identities for Azure resources is a feature of Azure Active Directory. Each of the Azure services that support managed identities for Azure resources are subject to their own timeline. Make sure you review the availability status of managed identities for your resource and known issues before you begin. The feature provides Azure services with an automatically managed identity in Azure AD. You can use the identity to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, including Key Vault, without any credentials in your code. The managed identities for Azure resources feature is free with Azure AD for Azure subscriptions, there's no additional cost.
There are two types of managed identities:
- A system-assigned managed identity is enabled directly on an Azure service instance. When the identity is enabled, Azure creates an identity for the instance in the Azure AD tenant that's trusted by the subscription of the instance. After the identity is created, the credentials are provisioned onto the instance. The life cycle of a system-assigned identity is directly tied to the Azure service instance that it's enabled on. If the instance is deleted, Azure automatically cleans up the credentials and the identity in Azure AD.
- A user-assigned managed identity is created as a standalone Azure resource. Through a create process, Azure creates an identity in the Azure AD tenant that's trusted by the subscription in use. After the identity is created, the identity can be assigned to one or more Azure service instances. The life cycle of a user-assigned identity is managed separately from the life cycle of the Azure service instances to which it's assigned.
Authenticate with identity services instead of cryptographic keys. On Azure, Managed Identities eliminate the need to store credentials that might be leaked inadvertently. When Managed Identity is enabled for an Azure resource, it's assigned an identity that you can use to obtain Azure AD tokens. For more information, see Azure AD-managed identities for Azure resources.
For example, an Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) cluster needs to pull images from Azure Container Registry (ACR). To access the image, the cluster needs to know the ACR credentials. The recommended way is to enable Managed Identities during cluster configuration. That configuration assigns an identity to the cluster and allows it to obtain Azure AD tokens.
This approach is secure because Azure handles the management of the underlying credentials for you.
- The identity is tied to the lifecycle of the resource, in the AKS cluster example. When the resource is deleted, Azure automatically deletes the identity.
- Azure AD manages the timely rotation of secrets for you.
Here are the resources for the preceding example:
GitHub: Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) Secure Baseline Reference Implementation.
The design considerations are described in Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) production baseline.
- Review workload authentication and identify opportunities to convert explicit credentials (for example, connection string and API key) to use managed identities.
- For all new Azure workloads, standardize on using managed identities where applicable.
What are managed identities for Azure resources?
What kind of authentication is required by application APIs?
Managed Identity can help an API be more secure because it replaces the use of human-managed service principals and can request authorization tokens.
How is user authentication handled in the application?
Don't use custom implementations to manage user credentials. Instead, use Azure AD or other managed identity providers such as Microsoft account Azure B2C. Managed identity providers provide additional security features such as modern password protections, multifactor authentication (MFA), and resets. In general, passwordless protections are preferred. Also, modern protocols like OAuth 2.0 use token-based authentication with limited timespan.
Are authentication tokens cached securely and encrypted when sharing across web servers?
Application code should first try to get OAuth access tokens silently from a cache before attempting to acquire a token from the identity provider, to optimize performance and maximize availability. Tokens should be stored securely and handled as any other credentials. When there's a need to share tokens across application servers (instead of each server acquiring and caching their own) encryption should be used.
For information, see Acquire and cache tokens.
Choose a system with cross-platform support
Use a single identity provider for authentication on all platforms (operating systems, cloud providers, and third-party services.
Azure AD can be used to authenticate Windows, Linux, Azure, Office 365, other cloud providers, and third-party services as service providers.
For example, improve the security of Linux virtual machines (VMs) in Azure with Azure AD integration. For details, see Log in to a Linux virtual machine in Azure using Azure Active Directory authentication.
Centralize all identity systems
Keep your cloud identity synchronized with the existing identity systems to ensure consistency and reduce human errors.
Consistency of identities across cloud and on-premises will reduce human error and resulting security risk. Teams managing resources in both environments need a consistent authoritative source to achieve security assurances. For monitoring, if identity can be determined without an intermediate mapping process, security efficiency is improved.
Synchronization is all about providing users an identity in the cloud based on their on-premises identity. Whether or not they will use synchronized account for authentication or federated authentication, the users will still need to have an identity in the cloud. This identity will need to be maintained and updated periodically. The updates can take many forms, from title changes to password changes.
Start by evaluating the organization's on-premises identity solution and user requirements. This evaluation is important, as it defines the technical requirements for how user identities will be created and maintained in the cloud. For the majority of organizations, Active Directory is established on-premises and will be the on-premises directory from which users will be synchronized, but this is not always the case.
Consider using Azure AD Connect for synchronizing Azure AD with your existing on-premises directory. For migration projects, have a requirement to complete this task before an Azure migration and development projects begin.
Don't synchronize high-privilege accounts to an on-premises directory. If an attacker gets full control of on-premises assets, they can compromise a cloud account. This strategy will limit the scope of an incident. For more information, see Critical impact account dependencies.
Synchronization is blocked by default in the default Azure AD Connect configuration. Make sure that you haven't customized this configuration. For information about filtering in Azure AD, see Azure AD Connect sync: Configure filtering.
For more information, see hybrid identity providers.
Here are the resources for the preceding example::
The design considerations are described in Integrate on-premises Active Directory domains with Azure AD.
Synchronize the hybrid identity systems
Use passwordless authentication
Attackers constantly scan public cloud IP ranges for open management ports. They attempt to exploit weak credentials (password spray) and unpatched vulnerabilities in management protocols like SSH, and RDP. Preventing direct internet access to virtual machines stops a misconfiguration or oversight becoming more serious.
Attack methods have evolved to the point where passwords alone cannot reliably protect an account. Modern authentication solutions including passwordless and multifactor authentication increase security posture through strong authentication.
Remove the use of passwords, when possible. Also, require the same set of credentials to sign in and access the resources on-premises or in the cloud. This requirement is crucial for accounts that require passwords, such as admin accounts.
With modern authentication and security features in Azure AD, that basic password should be supplemented or replaced with more secure authentication methods. Each organization has different needs when it comes to authentication. Microsoft offers the following three passwordless authentication options that integrate with Azure Active Directory (Azure AD):
- Windows Hello for Business
- Microsoft Authenticator app
- FIDO2 security keys
It's recommended to follow a four-stage plan to become passwordless:
- Develop password replacement offering
- Reduce user-visible password surface area
- Transition into password-less deployment
- Eliminate passwords from the identity directory
The following methods of authentication are ordered by highest cost/difficulty to attack (strongest/preferred options) to lowest cost/difficult to attack:
- Passwordless authentication. Some examples of this method include Windows Hello or Authenticator App.
- MFA. Although this method is more effective than passwords, we recommend that you avoid relying on SMS text message-based MFA. For more information, see Enable per-user Azure Active Directory MFA to secure sign-in events.
- Managed Identities. See Use identity-based authentication.
Those methods apply to all users, but should be applied first and strongest to accounts with administrative privileges.
An implementation of this strategy is enabling single sign-on (SSO) to devices, apps, and services. By signing in once using a single user account, you can grant access to all the applications and resources per business needs. Users don't have to manage multiple sets of usernames and passwords. You can provision or de-provision application access automatically. For more information, see Single sign-on.
- Develop a passwordless strategy that requires MFA for all users without significantly impacting operations.
- Ensure policy and processes require restricting, and monitoring direct internet connectivity by virtual machines.
Use modern password protection
Require modern protections through methods that reduce the use of passwords. Modern authentication protocols support strong controls such as MFA and should be used instead of legacy authentication methods. Use of legacy methods increases risk of credential exposure.
Modern authentication is a method of identity management that offers more secure user authentication and authorization. It's available for Office 365 hybrid deployments of Skype for Business server on-premises and Exchange server on-premises, and split-domain Skype for Business hybrids.
Modern authentication is an umbrella term for a combination of authentication and authorization methods between a client (for example, your laptop or your phone) and a server, as well as some security measures that rely on access policies that you may already be familiar with. It includes:
- Authentication methods: MFA; smart card authentication; client certificate-based authentication
- Authorization methods: Microsoft's implementation of Open Authorization (OAuth)
- Conditional access policies: Mobile Application Management (MAM) and Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) Conditional Access
Review workloads that do not leverage modern authentication protocols and convert where possible. In addition, standardize using modern authentication protocols for all future workloads.
For Azure, enable protections in Azure AD:
Configure Azure AD Connect to synchronize password hashes. For information, see Implement password hash synchronization with Azure AD Connect sync.
Choose whether to automatically or manually remediate issues found in a report. For more information, see Monitor identity risks.
For more information about supporting modern passwords in Azure AD, see the following articles:
- What is Identity Protection?
- Enforce on-premises Azure AD Password Protection for Active Directory Domain Services
- Users at risk security report
- Risky sign-ins security report
For more information about supporting modern passwords in Office 365, see the following article:
What is modern authentication?
Enable conditional access
Modern cloud-based applications are typically accessible over the internet, making network location-based access inflexible and single-factor passwords a liability. Conditional access describes your authentication policy for an access decision. For example, if a user is connecting from an InTune-managed corporate PC, they might not be challenged for MFA every time, but if the user suddenly connects from a different device in a different geography, MFA is required.
Grant access requests based on the requestors' trust level and the target resources' sensitivity.
Are there any conditional access requirements for the application?
Workloads can be exposed over public internet and location-based network controls are not applicable. To enable conditional access, understand what restrictions are required for the use case. For example, MFA is a necessity for remote access; IP-based filtering can be used to enable adhoc debugging (VPNs are preferred).
Configure Azure AD Conditional Access by setting up Access policy for Azure management based on your operational needs. For information, see Manage access to Azure management with Conditional Access.
Conditional access can be an effective way to phase out legacy authentication and associated protocols. The policies must be enforced for all admins and other critical impact accounts. Start by using metrics and logs to determine users who still authenticate with old clients. Next, disable any down-level protocols that aren't used, and set up conditional access for all users who aren't using legacy protocols. Finally, give notice and guidance to users about upgrading before blocking legacy authentication completely. For more information, see Azure AD Conditional Access support for blocking legacy auth.
Implement conditional access policies for this workload.
Learn more about Azure AD Conditional Access.
Grant or deny access to a system by verifying the accessor's identity.
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