Hotpatch for new virtual machines
Hotpatch is supported on Windows Server 2022 Datacenter: Azure Edition (Server Core).
Hotpatching is a new way to install updates on supported Windows Server Azure Edition virtual machines (VMs) that doesn’t require a reboot after installation. This article covers information about Hotpatch for supported Windows Server Azure Edition VMs, which has the following benefits:
- Lower workload impact with less reboots
- Faster deployment of updates as the packages are smaller, install faster, and have easier patch orchestration with Azure Update Manager
- Better protection, as the Hotpatch update packages are scoped to Windows security updates that install faster without rebooting
How hotpatch works
Hotpatch works by first establishing a baseline with a Windows Update Latest Cumulative Update. Hotpatches are periodically released (for example, on the second Tuesday of the month) that build on that baseline. Hotpatches will contain updates that don't require a reboot. Periodically (starting at every three months), the baseline is refreshed with a new Latest Cumulative Update.
There are two types of baselines: Planned baselines and unplanned baselines.
- Planned baselines are released on a regular cadence, with hotpatch releases in between. Planned baselines include all the updates in a comparable Latest Cumulative Update for that month, and require a reboot.
- The sample schedule above illustrates four planned baseline releases in a calendar year (five total in the diagram), and eight hotpatch releases.
- Unplanned baselines are released when an important update (such as a zero-day fix) is released, and that particular update can't be released as a Hotpatch. When unplanned baselines are released, a hotpatch release will be replaced with an unplanned baseline in that month. Unplanned baselines also include all the updates in a comparable Latest Cumulative Update for that month, and also require a reboot.
- The sample schedule above illustrates two unplanned baselines that would replace the hotpatch releases for those months (the actual number of unplanned baselines in a year isn't known in advance).
Hotpatch is available in all global Azure regions.
How to get started
You can preview onboarding Automanage machine best practices during VM creation in the Azure portal using this link.
To start using Hotpatch on a new VM, follow these steps:
Start creating a new VM from the Azure portal
- You can preview onboarding Automanage machine best practices during VM creation in the Azure portal using this link.
Supply details during VM creation
- Ensure that a supported Windows Server Azure Edition image is selected in the Image dropdown. Use this guide to determine which images are supported.
- On the Management tab under section ‘Guest OS updates’, the checkbox for 'Enable hotpatch' will be selected. Patch orchestration options will be set to 'Azure-orchestrated'.
- If you create a VM using this link, on the Management tab under section 'Azure Automanage', select 'Dev/Test' or 'Production' for 'Azure Automanage environment' to evaluate Automanage machine best practices while in preview.
Create your new VM
Automatic VM Guest Patching is enabled automatically for all VMs created with a supported Windows Server Azure Edition image. With automatic VM guest patching enabled:
- Patches classified as Critical or Security are automatically downloaded and applied on the VM.
- Patches are applied during off-peak hours in the VM's time zone.
- Patch orchestration is managed by Azure and patches are applied following availability-first principles.
- Virtual machine health, as determined through platform health signals, is monitored to detect patching failures.
How does automatic VM guest patching work?
When Automatic VM Guest Patching is enabled on a VM, the available Critical and Security patches are downloaded and applied automatically. This process kicks off automatically every month when new patches are released. Patch assessment and installation are automatic, and the process includes rebooting the VM as required.
With Hotpatch enabled on supported Windows Server Azure Edition VMs, most monthly security updates are delivered as hotpatches that don't require reboots. Latest Cumulative Updates sent on planned or unplanned baseline months will require VM reboots. Additional Critical or Security patches may also be available periodically which may require VM reboots.
The VM is assessed automatically every few days and multiple times within any 30-day period to determine the applicable patches for that VM. This automatic assessment ensures that any missing patches are discovered at the earliest possible opportunity.
Patches are installed within 30 days of the monthly patch releases, following availability-first principles. Patches are installed only during off-peak hours for the VM, depending on the time zone of the VM. The VM must be running during the off-peak hours for patches to be automatically installed. If a VM is powered off during a periodic assessment, the VM will be assessed and applicable patches will be installed automatically during the next periodic assessment when the VM is powered on. The next periodic assessment usually happens within a few days.
Definition updates and other patches not classified as Critical or Security won't be installed through automatic VM guest patching.
Understanding the patch status for your VM
To view the patch status for your VM, navigate to the Guest + host updates section for your VM in the Azure portal. Under the Guest OS updates section, click on ‘Go to Hotpatch (Preview)’ to view the latest patch status for your VM.
On this screen, you'll see the Hotpatch status for your VM. You can also review if there any available patches for your VM that haven't been installed. As described in the ‘Patch installation’ section above, all security and critical updates will be automatically installed on your VM using Automatic VM Guest Patching and no extra actions are required. Patches with other update classifications aren't automatically installed. Instead, they're viewable in the list of available patches under the ‘Update compliance’ tab. You can also view the history of update deployments on your VM through the ‘Update history’. Update history from the past 30 days is displayed, along with patch installation details.
With automatic VM guest patching, your VM is periodically and automatically assessed for available updates. These periodic assessments ensure that available patches are detected. You can view the results of the assessment on the Updates screen above, including the time of the last assessment. You can also choose to trigger an on-demand patch assessment for your VM at any time using the ‘Assess now’ option and review the results after assessment completes.
Similar to on-demand assessment, you can also install patches on-demand for your VM using the ‘Install updates now’ option. Here you can choose to install all updates under specific patch classifications. You can also specify updates to include or exclude by providing a list of individual knowledge base articles. Patches installed on-demand aren't installed using availability-first principles and may require more reboots and VM downtime for update installation.
Hotpatch covers Windows Security updates and maintains parity with the content of security updates issued to in the regular (non-Hotpatch) Windows update channel.
There are some important considerations to running a supported Windows Server Azure Edition VM with Hotpatch enabled. Reboots are still required to install updates that aren't included in the Hotpatch program. Reboots are also required periodically after a new baseline has been installed. These reboots keep the VM in sync with non-security patches included in the latest cumulative update.
- Patches that are currently not included in the Hotpatch program include non-security updates released for Windows, and non-Windows updates (such as .NET patches). These types of patches need to be installed during a baseline month, and will require a reboot.
Frequently asked questions
What is hotpatching?
- Hotpatching is a new way to install updates on a supported Windows Server Azure Edition VM in Azure that doesn’t require a reboot after installation. It works by patching the in-memory code of running processes without the need to restart the process.
How does hotpatching work?
- Hotpatching works by establishing a baseline with a Windows Update Latest Cumulative Update, then builds upon that baseline with updates that don’t require a reboot to take effect. The baseline is updated periodically with a new cumulative update. The cumulative update includes all security and quality updates and requires a reboot.
Why should I use Hotpatch?
- When you use Hotpatch on a supported Windows Server Azure Edition image, your VM will have higher availability (fewer reboots), and faster updates (smaller packages that are installed faster without the need to restart processes). This process results in a VM that is always up to date and secure.
What types of updates are covered by Hotpatch?
- Hotpatch currently covers Windows security updates.
When will I receive the first Hotpatch update?
- Hotpatch updates are typically released on the second Tuesday of each month. For more information, see below.
What will the Hotpatch schedule look like?
Hotpatching works by establishing a baseline with a Windows Update Latest Cumulative Update, then builds upon that baseline with Hotpatch updates released monthly. Baselines will be released starting out every three months. See the image below for an example of an annual three-month schedule (including example unplanned baselines due to zero-day fixes).
Are reboots still needed for a VM enrolled in Hotpatch?
- Reboots are still required to install updates not included in the Hotpatch program, and are required periodically after a baseline (Windows Update Latest Cumulative Update) has been installed. This reboot will keep your VM in sync with all the patches included in the cumulative update. Baselines (which require a reboot) will start out on a three-month cadence and increase over time.
Are my applications affected when a Hotpatch update is installed?
- Because Hotpatch patches the in-memory code of running processes without the need to restart the process, your applications will be unaffected by the patching process. Note that this is separate from any potential performance and functionality implications of the patch itself.
Can I turn off Hotpatch on my VM?
- You can turn off Hotpatch on a VM via the Azure portal. Turning off Hotpatch will unenroll the VM from Hotpatch, which reverts the VM to typical update behavior for Windows Server. Once you unenroll from Hotpatch on a VM, you can re-enroll that VM when the next Hotpatch baseline is released.
Can I upgrade from my existing Windows Server OS?
- Yes, upgrading from existing versions of Windows Server (such as Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2019) to Windows Server 2022 Datacenter: Azure Edition is supported.
How can I get troubleshooting support for Hotpatching?
- You can file a technical support case ticket. For the Service option, search for and select Virtual Machine running Windows under Compute. Select Azure Features for the problem type and Automatic VM Guest Patching for the problem subtype.