Auto-failover groups overview & best practices (Azure SQL Database)
Applies to: Azure SQL Database
The auto-failover groups feature allows you to manage the replication and failover of some or all databases on a logical server to a logical server another region. This article focuses on using the Auto-failover group feature with Azure SQL Database and some best practices.
- This article covers auto-failover groups for Azure SQL Database. For Azure SQL Managed Instance, see Auto-failover groups in Azure SQL Managed Instance.
- Auto-failover groups support geo-replication of all databases in the group to only one secondary logical server in a different region. If you need to create multiple Azure SQL Database geo-secondary replicas (in the same or different regions) for the same primary replica, use active geo-replication.
The auto-failover groups feature allows you to manage the replication and failover of databases to another Azure region. You can include of a group of databases or all user databases in a logical server to be replicated to another logical server. It is a declarative abstraction on top of the active geo-replication feature, designed to simplify deployment and management of geo-replicated databases at scale.
You can initiate a geo-failover manually or you can delegate it to the Azure service based on a user-defined policy. The latter option allows you to automatically recover multiple related databases in a secondary region after a catastrophic failure or other unplanned event that results in full or partial loss of the SQL Database or SQL Managed Instance availability in the primary region. Typically, these are outages that cannot be automatically mitigated by the built-in high availability infrastructure. Examples of geo-failover triggers include natural disasters or incidents caused by a tenant or control ring being down due to an OS kernel memory leak on compute nodes.
Offload read-only workloads
To reduce traffic to your primary databases, you can also use the secondary databases in a failover group to offload read-only workloads. Use the read-only listener to direct read-only traffic to a readable secondary database.
Auto-failover groups provide read-write and read-only listener end-points that remain unchanged during geo-failovers. You do not have to change the connection string for your application after a geo-failover, because connections are automatically routed to the current primary. Whether you use manual or automatic failover activation, a geo-failover switches all secondary databases in the group to the primary role. After the geo-failover is completed, the DNS record is automatically updated to redirect the endpoints to the new region. For geo-failover RPO and RTO, see Overview of Business Continuity.
Recovering an application
For more information, see Azure SQL Database high availability.
Terminology and capabilities
Failover group (FOG)
A failover group is a named group of databases managed by a single logical server that can fail over as a unit to another Azure region in case all or some primary databases become unavailable due to an outage in the primary region.
The name of the failover group must be globally unique within the
Some or all of the user databases on a logical server can be placed in a failover group. Also, a server supports multiple failover groups on a single server.
The logical server that hosts the primary databases in the failover group.
The logical server that hosts the secondary databases in the failover group. The secondary cannot be in the same Azure region as the primary.
Adding single databases to failover group
You can put several single databases on the same logical server into the same failover group. If you add a single database to the failover group, it automatically creates a secondary database using the same edition and compute size on secondary server. You specified that server when the failover group was created. If you add a database that already has a secondary database in the secondary server, that geo-replication link is inherited by the group. When you add a database that already has a secondary database in a server that is not part of the failover group, a new secondary is created in the secondary server.
Make sure that the secondary logical server doesn't have a database with the same name unless it is an existing secondary database.
Adding databases in elastic pool to failover group
You can put all or several databases within an elastic pool into the same failover group. If the primary database is in an elastic pool, the secondary is automatically created in the elastic pool with the same name (secondary pool). You must ensure that the secondary server contains an elastic pool with the same exact name and enough free capacity to host the secondary databases that will be created by the failover group. If you add a database in the pool that already has a secondary database in the secondary pool, that geo-replication link is inherited by the group. When you add a database that already has a secondary database in a server that is not part of the failover group, a new secondary is created in the secondary pool.
Failover group read-write listener
A DNS CNAME record that points to the current primary. It is created automatically when the failover group is created and allows the read-write workload to transparently reconnect to the primary when the primary changes after failover. When the failover group is created on a server, the DNS CNAME record for the listener URL is formed as
Failover group read-only listener
A DNS CNAME record that points to the current secondary. It is created automatically when the failover group is created and allows the read-only SQL workload to transparently connect to the secondary when the secondary changes after failover. When the failover group is created on a server, the DNS CNAME record for the listener URL is formed as
Multiple failover groups
You can configure multiple failover groups for the same pair of servers to control the scope of geo-failovers. Each group fails over independently. If your tenant-per-database application is deployed in multiple regions and uses elastic pools, you can use this capability to mix primary and secondary databases in each pool. This way you may be able to reduce the impact of an outage to only some tenant databases.
Automatic failover policy
By default, a failover group is configured with an automatic failover policy. The system triggers a geo-failover after the failure is detected and the grace period has expired. The system must verify that the outage cannot be mitigated by the built-in high availability infrastructure, for example due to the scale of the impact. If you want to control the geo-failover workflow from the application or manually, you can turn off automatic failover policy.
Because verification of the scale of the outage and how quickly it can be mitigated involves human actions, the grace period cannot be set below one hour, and the exact time of the failover may vary slightly from the grace period that was set. This limitation applies to all databases in the failover group regardless of their data synchronization state.
Read-only failover policy
By default, the failover of the read-only listener is disabled. It ensures that the performance of the primary is not impacted when the secondary is offline. However, it also means the read-only sessions will not be able to connect until the secondary is recovered. If you cannot tolerate downtime for the read-only sessions and can use the primary for both read-only and read-write traffic at the expense of the potential performance degradation of the primary, you can enable failover for the read-only listener by configuring the
AllowReadOnlyFailoverToPrimaryproperty. In that case, the read-only traffic will be automatically redirected to the primary if the secondary is not available.
AllowReadOnlyFailoverToPrimaryproperty only has effect if automatic failover policy is enabled and an automatic geo-failover has been triggered. In that case, if the property is set to True, the new primary will serve both read-write and read-only sessions.
Planned failover performs full data synchronization between primary and secondary databases before the secondary switches to the primary role. This guarantees no data loss. Planned failover is used in the following scenarios:
- Perform disaster recovery (DR) drills in production when data loss is not acceptable
- Relocate the databases to a different region
- Return the databases to the primary region after the outage has been mitigated (failback)
If a database contains in-memory OLTP objects, the primary database and the secondary geo-replica database must have matching service tiers, as in-memory OLTP objects reside in memory. A lower service tier on the geo-replica database may result in out-of-memory issues. If this occurs, the geo-replica may fail to recover the database, causing unavailability of the secondary database along with in-memory OLTP objects on the geo-secondary. This, in turn, may cause failovers to be unsuccessful as well. To avoid this, ensure that the service tier of the geo-secondary database matches that of the primary database. Service tier upgrades can be size-of-data operations and may take a while to finish.
Unplanned or forced failover immediately switches the secondary to the primary role without waiting for recent changes to propagate from the primary. This operation may result in data loss. Unplanned failover is used as a recovery method during outages when the primary is not accessible. When the outage is mitigated, the old primary will automatically reconnect and become a new secondary. A planned failover may be executed to fail back, returning the replicas to their original primary and secondary roles.
You can initiate a geo-failover manually at any time regardless of the automatic failover configuration. You can initiate a forced (unplanned) or friendly (planned) failover. A friendly failover is only possible when the old primary is accessible, and can be used to relocate the primary to the secondary region without data loss. During an outage that impacts the primary, if automatic failover policy is not configured, a manual failover is required to promote the secondary to the primary role. When a failover is completed, the DNS records are automatically updated to ensure connectivity to the new primary.
Grace period with data loss
Because the data is replicated to the secondary database using asynchronous replication, an automatic geo-failover may result in data loss. You can customize the automatic failover policy to reflect your application's tolerance to data loss. By configuring
GracePeriodWithDataLossHours, you can control how long the system waits before initiating a forced failover, which may result in data loss.
Failover group architecture
A failover group in Azure SQL Database can include one or multiple databases, typically used by the same application. When you are using auto-failover groups with automatic failover policy, an outage that impacts one or several of the databases in the group will result in an automatic geo-failover.
The auto-failover group must be configured on the primary server and will connect it to the secondary server in a different Azure region. The groups can include all or some databases in these servers. The following diagram illustrates a typical configuration of a geo-redundant cloud application using multiple databases and auto-failover group.
When designing a service with business continuity in mind, follow the general guidelines and best practices outlined in this article. When configuring a failover group, ensure that authentication and network access on the secondary is set up to function correctly after geo-failover, when the geo-secondary becomes the new primary. For details, see SQL Database security after disaster recovery. For more information about designing solutions for disaster recovery, see Designing Cloud Solutions for Disaster Recovery Using active geo-replication.
For information about using point-in-time restore with failover groups, see Point in Time Recovery (PITR).
Use paired regions
Deploy both managed instances to paired regions for performance reasons. Azure SQL Database failover groups in paired regions have better performance compared to unpaired regions.
Azure SQL Database follows a safe deployment practice where Azure paired regions are generally not deployed to at the same time. However, it is not possible to predict which region will be upgraded first, so the order of deployment is not guaranteed. Sometimes, your primary instance will be upgraded first, and sometimes it would be secondary.
In situations where your database has geo-replication or auto-failover groups configured, and the geo-replication does not align with the Azure region pairing, you should select different maintenance window schedules for your primary and secondary database. For example, you can select Weekday maintenance window for your geo-secondary database and Weekend maintenance window for your geo-primary database.
When adding databases or elastic pools to a failover group, there is an initial seeding phase before data replication starts. The initial seeding phase is the longest and most expensive operation. Once initial seeding completes, data is synchronized, and then only subsequent data changes are replicated. The time it takes for the initial seeding to complete depends on the size of your data, number of replicated databases, the load on primary databases, and the speed of the link between the primary and secondary. Under normal circumstances, possible seeding speed is up to 500 GB an hour for SQL Database. Seeding is performed for all databases in parallel.
Use multiple failover groups to fail over multiple databases
One or many failover groups can be created between two servers in different regions (primary and secondary servers). Each group can include one or several databases that are recovered as a unit in case all or some primary databases become unavailable due to an outage in the primary region. Creating a failover group creates geo-secondary databases with the same service objective as the primary. If you add an existing geo-replication relationship to a failover group, make sure the geo-secondary is configured with the same service tier and compute size as the primary.
Use the read-write listener (primary)
For read-write workloads, use
<fog-name>.database.windows.net as the server name in the connection string. Connections will be automatically directed to the primary. This name does not change after failover. Note the failover involves updating the DNS record so the client connections are redirected to the new primary only after the client DNS cache is refreshed. The time to live (TTL) of the primary and secondary listener DNS record is 30 seconds.
Use the read-only listener (secondary)
If you have logically isolated read-only workloads that are tolerant to data latency, you can run them on the geo-secondary. For read-only sessions, use
<fog-name>.secondary.database.windows.net as the server name in the connection string. Connections will be automatically directed to the geo-secondary. It is also recommended that you indicate read intent in the connection string by using
In Premium, Business Critical, and Hyperscale service tiers, SQL Database supports the use of read-only replicas to offload read-only query workloads, using the
ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly parameter in the connection string. When you have configured a geo-secondary, you can use this capability to connect to either a read-only replica in the primary location or in the geo-replicated location:
- To connect to a read-only replica in the secondary location, use
Potential performance degradation after failover
A typical Azure application uses multiple Azure services and consists of multiple components. The automatic geo-failover of the failover group is triggered based on the state the Azure SQL components alone. Other Azure services in the primary region may not be affected by the outage and their components may still be available in that region. Once the primary databases switch to the secondary (DR) region, the latency between the dependent components may increase. To avoid the impact of higher latency on the application's performance, ensure the redundancy of all the application's components in the DR region, follow these network security guidelines, and orchestrate the geo-failover of relevant application components together with the database.
Potential data loss after failover
If an outage occurs in the primary region, recent transactions may not be able to replicate to the geo-secondary. If the automatic failover policy is configured, the system waits for the period you specified by
GracePeriodWithDataLossHours before initiating an automatic geo-failover. The default value is 1 hour. This favors database availability over no data loss. Setting
GracePeriodWithDataLossHours to a larger number, such as 24 hours, or disabling automatic geo-failover lets you reduce the likelihood of data loss at the expense of database availability.
Elastic pools with 800 or fewer DTUs or 8 or fewer vCores, and more than 250 databases may encounter issues including longer planned geo-failovers and degraded performance. These issues are more likely to occur for write intensive workloads, when geo-replicas are widely separated by geography, or when multiple secondary geo-replicas are used for each database. A symptom of these issues is an increase in geo-replication lag over time, potentially leading to a more extensive data loss in an outage. This lag can be monitored using sys.dm_geo_replication_link_status. If these issues occur, then mitigation includes scaling up the pool to have more DTUs or vCores, or reducing the number of geo-replicated databases in the pool.
Failover groups and network security
For some applications, the security rules require that the network access to the data tier is restricted to a specific component or components such as a VM, web service, etc. This requirement presents some challenges for business continuity design and the use of failover groups. Consider the following options when implementing such restricted access.
Use failover groups and virtual network service endpoints
If you are using Virtual Network service endpoints and rules to restrict access to your database in SQL Database, be aware that each virtual network service endpoint applies to only one Azure region. The endpoint does not enable other regions to accept communication from the subnet. Therefore, only the client applications deployed in the same region can connect to the primary database. Since a geo-failover results in the SQL Database client sessions being rerouted to a server in a different (secondary) region, these sessions will fail if originated from a client outside of that region. For that reason, the automatic failover policy cannot be enabled if the participating servers or instances are included in the Virtual Network rules. To support manual failover, follow these steps:
- Provision the redundant copies of the front-end components of your application (web service, virtual machines etc.) in the secondary region.
- Configure the virtual network rules individually for primary and secondary server.
- Enable the front-end failover using a Traffic manager configuration.
- Initiate manual geo-failover when the outage is detected. This option is optimized for the applications that require consistent latency between the front-end and the data tier and supports recovery when either front end, data tier or both are impacted by the outage.
If you are using the read-only listener to load-balance a read-only workload, make sure that this workload is executed in a VM or other resource in the secondary region so it can connect to the secondary database.
Use failover groups and firewall rules
If your business continuity plan requires failover using groups with automatic failover, you can restrict access to your database in SQL Database by using public IP firewall rules. To support automatic failover, follow these steps:
- Create a public IP.
- Create a public load balancer and assign the public IP to it.
- Create a virtual network and the virtual machines for your front-end components.
- Create network security group and configure inbound connections.
- Ensure that the outbound connections are open to Azure SQL Database in a region by using an
- Create a SQL Database firewall rule to allow inbound traffic from the public IP address you create in step 1.
For more information on how to configure outbound access and what IP to use in the firewall rules, see Load balancer outbound connections.
The above configuration ensures that an automatic geo-failover will not block connections from the front-end components and assumes that the application can tolerate the longer latency between the front end and the data tier.
To guarantee business continuity during regional outages you must ensure geographic redundancy for both front-end components and databases.
Scale primary database
You can scale up or scale down the primary database to a different compute size (within the same service tier) without disconnecting any geo-secondaries. When scaling up, we recommend that you scale up the geo-secondary first, and then scale up the primary. When scaling down, reverse the order: scale down the primary first, and then scale down the secondary. When you scale a database to a different service tier, this recommendation is enforced.
This sequence is recommended specifically to avoid the problem where the geo-secondary at a lower SKU gets overloaded and must be re-seeded during an upgrade or downgrade process. You could also avoid the problem by making the primary read-only, at the expense of impacting all read-write workloads against the primary.
If you created a geo-secondary as part of the failover group configuration it is not recommended to scale down the geo-secondary. This is to ensure your data tier has sufficient capacity to process your regular workload after a geo-failover. You may not be able to scale a geo-secondary after a forced failover when the former geo-primary is unavailable due to outage. We are aware of this limitation and will be fixing it soon.
Prevent loss of critical data
Due to the high latency of wide area networks, geo-replication uses an asynchronous replication mechanism. Asynchronous replication makes the possibility of data loss unavoidable if the primary fails. To protect critical transactions from data loss, an application developer can call the sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync stored procedure immediately after committing the transaction. Calling
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync blocks the calling thread until the last committed transaction has been transmitted and hardened in the transaction log of the secondary database. However, it does not wait for the transmitted transactions to be replayed (redone) on the secondary.
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync is scoped to a specific geo-replication link. Any user with the connection rights to the primary database can call this procedure.
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync prevents data loss after geo-failover for specific transactions, but does not guarantee full synchronization for read access. The delay caused by a
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync procedure call can be significant and depends on the size of the not yet transmitted transaction log on the primary at the time of the call.
When Auto-Failover groups are configured with automatic failover policy, then failover to geo secondary server will be initiated during a disaster scenario as per the defined grace period. Failback to the old primary will need to be initiated manually.
Permissions for a failover group are managed via Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC).
Azure RBAC write access is necessary to create and manage failover groups. The SQL Server Contributor role has all the necessary permissions to manage failover groups.
For specific permission scopes, review how to configure auto-failover groups in Azure SQL Database.
Be aware of the following limitations:
- Failover groups cannot be created between two servers in the same Azure region.
- Failover groups cannot be renamed. You will need to delete the group and re-create it with a different name.
- Database rename is not supported for databases in failover group. You will need to temporarily delete failover group to be able to rename a database, or remove the database from the failover group.
Programmatically manage failover groups
As discussed previously, auto-failover groups can also be managed programmatically using Azure PowerShell, Azure CLI, and REST API. The following tables describe the set of commands available. Active geo-replication includes a set of Azure Resource Manager APIs for management, including the Azure SQL Database REST API and Azure PowerShell cmdlets. These APIs require the use of resource groups and support Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC). For more information on how to implement access roles, see Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC).
|New-AzSqlDatabaseFailoverGroup||This command creates a failover group and registers it on both primary and secondary servers|
|Remove-AzSqlDatabaseFailoverGroup||Removes a failover group from the server|
|Get-AzSqlDatabaseFailoverGroup||Retrieves a failover group's configuration|
|Set-AzSqlDatabaseFailoverGroup||Modifies configuration of a failover group|
|Switch-AzSqlDatabaseFailoverGroup||Triggers failover of a failover group to the secondary server|
|Add-AzSqlDatabaseToFailoverGroup||Adds one or more databases to a failover group|
- For detailed tutorials, see
- For sample scripts, see:
- For a business continuity overview and scenarios, see Business continuity overview
- To learn about Azure SQL Database automated backups, see SQL Database automated backups.
- To learn about using automated backups for recovery, see Restore a database from the service-initiated backups.
- To learn about authentication requirements for a new primary server and database, see SQL Database security after disaster recovery.