Java app to connect and run SQL commands on Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL

APPLIES TO: PostgreSQL

This quickstart shows you how to use Java code to connect to a cluster, and use SQL statements to create a table. You'll then insert, query, update, and delete data in the database. The steps in this article assume that you're familiar with Java development and JDBC, and are new to working with Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL.

Set up the Java project and connection

Create a new Java project and a configuration file to connect to Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL.

Create a new Java project

Using your favorite integrated development environment (IDE), create a new Java project with groupId test and artifactId crud. In the project's root directory, add a pom.xml file with the following contents. This file configures Apache Maven to use Java 8 and a recent PostgreSQL driver for Java.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>test</groupId>
  <artifactId>crud</artifactId>
  <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>jar</packaging>

  <name>crud</name>
  <url>http://www.example.com</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
    <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
      <version>5.7.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
      <artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
      <version>42.2.12</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.zaxxer/HikariCP -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.zaxxer</groupId>
      <artifactId>HikariCP</artifactId>
      <version>5.0.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit-jupiter-params</artifactId>
      <version>5.7.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

  <build>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>3.0.0-M5</version>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

Configure the database connection

In src/main/resources/, create an application.properties file with the following contents. Replace <cluster> with your cluster name, and replace <password> with your administrative password.

driver.class.name=org.postgresql.Driver
db.url=jdbc:postgresql://c.<cluster>.postgres.database.azure.com:5432/citus?ssl=true&sslmode=require
db.username=citus
db.password=<password>

The ?ssl=true&sslmode=require string in the db.url property tells the JDBC driver to use Transport Layer Security (TLS) when connecting to the database. It's mandatory to use TLS with Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL, and is a good security practice.

Create tables

Configure a database schema that has distributed tables. Connect to the database to create the schema and tables.

Generate the database schema

In src/main/resources/, create a schema.sql file with the following contents:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS public.pharmacy;
CREATE TABLE  public.pharmacy(pharmacy_id integer,pharmacy_name text ,city text ,state text ,zip_code integer);
CREATE INDEX idx_pharmacy_id ON public.pharmacy(pharmacy_id);

Distribute tables

Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL gives you the super power of distributing tables across multiple nodes for scalability. The command below enables you to distribute a table. You can learn more about create_distributed_table and the distribution column here.

Note

Distributing tables lets them grow across any worker nodes added to the cluster.

To distribute tables, append the following line to the schema.sql file you created in the previous section.

select create_distributed_table('public.pharmacy','pharmacy_id');

Connect to the database and create the schema

Next, add the Java code that uses JDBC to store and retrieve data from your cluster. The code uses the application.properties and schema.sql files to connect to the cluster and create the schema.

  1. Create a DButil.java file with the following code, which contains the DButil class. The DBUtil class sets up a connection pool to PostgreSQL using HikariCP. You use this class to connect to PostgreSQL and start querying.

    Tip

    The sample code below uses a connection pool to create and manage connections to PostgreSQL. Application-side connection pooling is strongly recommended because:

    • It ensures that the application doesn't generate too many connections to the database, and so avoids exceeding connection limits.
    • It can help drastically improve performance--both latency and throughput. The PostgreSQL server process must fork to handle each new connection, and reusing a connection avoids that overhead.
    //DButil.java
    package test.crud;
    
    import java.io.FileInputStream;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.sql.SQLException;
    import java.util.Properties;
    
    import javax.sql.DataSource;
    
    import com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource;
    
    public class DButil {
        private static final String DB_USERNAME = "db.username";
        private static final String DB_PASSWORD = "db.password";
        private static final String DB_URL = "db.url";
        private static final String DB_DRIVER_CLASS = "driver.class.name";
        private static Properties properties =  null;
        private static HikariDataSource datasource;
    
        static {
            try {
                properties = new Properties();
                properties.load(new FileInputStream("src/main/java/application.properties"));
    
                datasource = new HikariDataSource();
                datasource.setDriverClassName(properties.getProperty(DB_DRIVER_CLASS ));
                datasource.setJdbcUrl(properties.getProperty(DB_URL));
                datasource.setUsername(properties.getProperty(DB_USERNAME));
                datasource.setPassword(properties.getProperty(DB_PASSWORD));
                datasource.setMinimumIdle(100);
                datasource.setMaximumPoolSize(1000000000);
                datasource.setAutoCommit(true);
                datasource.setLoginTimeout(3);
            } catch (IOException | SQLException  e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        public static DataSource getDataSource() {
            return datasource;
        }
    }
    
  2. In src/main/java/, create a DemoApplication.java file that contains the following code:

    package test.crud;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.sql.*;
    import java.util.*;
    import java.util.logging.Logger;
    import java.io.FileInputStream;
    import java.io.FileOutputStream;
    import org.postgresql.copy.CopyManager;
    import org.postgresql.core.BaseConnection;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.Reader;
    import java.io.StringReader;
    
    public class DemoApplication {
    
        private static final Logger log;
    
        static {
            System.setProperty("java.util.logging.SimpleFormatter.format", "[%4$-7s] %5$s %n");
            log =Logger.getLogger(DemoApplication.class.getName());
        }
        public static void main(String[] args)throws Exception
        {
            log.info("Connecting to the database");
            Connection connection = DButil.getDataSource().getConnection();
            System.out.println("The Connection Object is of Class: " + connection.getClass());
            log.info("Database connection test: " + connection.getCatalog());
            log.info("Creating table");
            log.info("Creating index");
            log.info("distributing table");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(DemoApplication.class.getClassLoader().getResourceAsStream("schema.sql"));
            Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
            while (scanner.hasNextLine()) {
                statement.execute(scanner.nextLine());
            }
            log.info("Closing database connection");
            connection.close();
        }
    
    }
    

    Note

    The database user and password credentials are used when executing DriverManager.getConnection(properties.getProperty("url"), properties);. The credentials are stored in the application.properties file, which is passed as an argument.

  3. You can now execute this main class with your favorite tool:

    • Using your IDE, you should be able to right-click on the DemoApplication class and execute it.
    • Using Maven, you can run the application by executing:
      mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="com.example.demo.DemoApplication".

The application should connect to the Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL, create a database schema, and then close the connection, as you should see in the console logs:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Create database schema
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

Create a domain class

Create a new Pharmacy Java class, next to the DemoApplication class, and add the following code:

public class Pharmacy {
    private Integer pharmacy_id;
    private String pharmacy_name;
    private String city;
    private String state;
    private Integer zip_code;
    public Pharmacy() { }
    public Pharmacy(Integer pharmacy_id, String pharmacy_name, String city,String state,Integer zip_code)
    {
        this.pharmacy_id = pharmacy_id;
        this.pharmacy_name = pharmacy_name;
        this.city = city;
        this.state = state;
        this.zip_code = zip_code;
    }

    public Integer getpharmacy_id() {
        return pharmacy_id;
    }

    public void setpharmacy_id(Integer pharmacy_id) {
        this.pharmacy_id = pharmacy_id;
    }

    public String getpharmacy_name() {
        return pharmacy_name;
    }

    public void setpharmacy_name(String pharmacy_name) {
        this.pharmacy_name = pharmacy_name;
    }

    public String getcity() {
        return city;
    }

    public void setcity(String city) {
        this.city = city;
    }

    public String getstate() {
        return state;
    }

    public void setstate(String state) {
        this.state = state;
    }

    public Integer getzip_code() {
        return zip_code;
    }

    public void setzip_code(Integer zip_code) {
        this.zip_code = zip_code;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "TPharmacy{" +
               "pharmacy_id=" + pharmacy_id +
               ", pharmacy_name='" + pharmacy_name + '\'' +
               ", city='" + city + '\'' +
               ", state='" + state + '\'' +
               ", zip_code='" + zip_code + '\'' +
               '}';
    }
}

This class is a domain model mapped on the Pharmacy table that you created when executing the schema.sql script.

Insert data

In the DemoApplication.java file, after the main method, add the following method that uses the INSERT INTO SQL statement to insert data into the database:

private static void insertData(Pharmacy todo, Connection connection) throws SQLException {
    log.info("Insert data");
    PreparedStatement insertStatement = connection
        .prepareStatement("INSERT INTO pharmacy (pharmacy_id,pharmacy_name,city,state,zip_code)  VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?);");

    insertStatement.setInt(1, todo.getpharmacy_id());
    insertStatement.setString(2, todo.getpharmacy_name());
    insertStatement.setString(3, todo.getcity());
    insertStatement.setString(4, todo.getstate());
    insertStatement.setInt(5, todo.getzip_code());

    insertStatement.executeUpdate();
}

Add the two following lines in the main method:

Pharmacy todo = new Pharmacy(0,"Target","Sunnyvale","California",94001);
insertData(todo, connection);

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

Read data

Read the data you previously inserted to validate that your code works correctly.

In the DemoApplication.java file, after the insertData method, add the following method that uses the SELECT SQL statement to read data from the database:

private static Pharmacy readData(Connection connection) throws SQLException {
    log.info("Read data");
    PreparedStatement readStatement = connection.prepareStatement("SELECT * FROM Pharmacy;");
    ResultSet resultSet = readStatement.executeQuery();
    if (!resultSet.next()) {
        log.info("There is no data in the database!");
        return null;
    }
    Pharmacy todo = new Pharmacy();
    todo.setpharmacy_id(resultSet.getInt("pharmacy_id"));
    todo.setpharmacy_name(resultSet.getString("pharmacy_name"));
    todo.setcity(resultSet.getString("city"));
    todo.setstate(resultSet.getString("state"));
    todo.setzip_code(resultSet.getInt("zip_code"));
    log.info("Data read from the database: " + todo.toString());
    return todo;
}

Add the following line in the main method:

todo = readData(connection);

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Sunnyvale', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

Update data

Update the data you previously inserted.

Still in the DemoApplication.java file, after the readData method, add the following method to update data inside the database by using the UPDATE SQL statement:

private static void updateData(Pharmacy todo, Connection connection) throws SQLException {
    log.info("Update data");
    PreparedStatement updateStatement = connection
        .prepareStatement("UPDATE pharmacy SET city = ? WHERE pharmacy_id = ?;");

    updateStatement.setString(1, todo.getcity());

    updateStatement.setInt(2, todo.getpharmacy_id());
    updateStatement.executeUpdate();
    readData(connection);
}

Add the two following lines in the main method:

todo.setcity("Guntur");
updateData(todo, connection);

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Sunnyvale', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Update data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Guntur', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

Delete data

Finally, delete the data you previously inserted. Still in the DemoApplication.java file, after the updateData method, add the following method to delete data inside the database by using the DELETE SQL statement:

private static void deleteData(Pharmacy todo, Connection connection) throws SQLException {
    log.info("Delete data");
    PreparedStatement deleteStatement = connection.prepareStatement("DELETE FROM pharmacy WHERE pharmacy_id = ?;");
    deleteStatement.setLong(1, todo.getpharmacy_id());
    deleteStatement.executeUpdate();
    readData(connection);
}

You can now add the following line in the main method:

deleteData(todo, connection);

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Sunnyvale', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Update data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Guntur', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Delete data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] There is no data in the database!
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

COPY command for fast ingestion

The COPY command can yield tremendous throughput while ingesting data into Azure Cosmos DB for PostgreSQL. The COPY command can ingest data in files, or from micro-batches of data in memory for real-time ingestion.

COPY command to load data from a file

The following code copies data from a CSV file to a database table. The code sample requires the file pharmacies.csv.

public static long
copyFromFile(Connection connection, String filePath, String tableName)
throws SQLException, IOException {
    long count = 0;
    FileInputStream fileInputStream = null;

    try {
        Connection unwrap = connection.unwrap(Connection.class);
        BaseConnection  connSec = (BaseConnection) unwrap;

        CopyManager copyManager = new CopyManager((BaseConnection) connSec);
        fileInputStream = new FileInputStream(filePath);
        count = copyManager.copyIn("COPY " + tableName + " FROM STDIN delimiter ',' csv", fileInputStream);
    } finally {
        if (fileInputStream != null) {
            try {
                fileInputStream.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
    return count;
}

You can now add the following line in the main method:

int c = (int) copyFromFile(connection,"C:\\Users\\pharmacies.csv", "pharmacy");
log.info("Copied "+ c +" rows using COPY command");

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Sunnyvale', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Update data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Guntur', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Delete data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] There is no data in the database!
[INFO ] Copied 5000 rows using COPY command
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

COPY command to load in-memory data

The following code copies in-memory data to a table.

private static void inMemory(Connection connection) throws SQLException,IOException
    {
    log.info("Copying inmemory data into table");
            
    final List<String> rows = new ArrayList<>();
    rows.add("0,Target,Sunnyvale,California,94001");
    rows.add("1,Apollo,Guntur,Andhra,94003");
        
    final BaseConnection baseConnection = (BaseConnection) connection.unwrap(Connection.class);
    final CopyManager copyManager = new CopyManager(baseConnection);

    // COPY command can change based on the format of rows. This COPY command is for above rows.
    final String copyCommand = "COPY pharmacy FROM STDIN with csv";        
       
    try (final Reader reader = new StringReader(String.join("\n", rows))) {
        copyManager.copyIn(copyCommand, reader);
    }
}

You can now add the following line in the main method:

inMemory(connection);

Executing the main class should now produce the following output:

[INFO   ] Loading application properties
[INFO   ] Connecting to the database
[INFO   ] Database connection test: citus
[INFO   ] Creating table
[INFO   ] Creating index
[INFO   ] distributing table
[INFO   ] Insert data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Sunnyvale', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Update data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] Data read from the database: Pharmacy{pharmacy_id=0, pharmacy_name='Target', city='Guntur', state='California', zip_code='94001'}
[INFO   ] Delete data
[INFO   ] Read data
[INFO   ] There is no data in the database!
5000
[INFO   ] Copying in-memory data into table
[INFO   ] Closing database connection

App retry for database request failures

It's sometimes possible that database requests from your application fail. Such issues can happen under different scenarios, such as network failure between app and database, incorrect password, etc. Some issues may be transient, and resolve themselves in a few seconds to minutes. You can configure retry logic in your app to overcome the transient errors.

Configuring retry logic in your app helps improve the end user experience. Under failure scenarios, users will merely wait a bit longer for the application to serve requests, rather than experience errors.

The example below shows how to implement retry logic in your app. The sample code snippet tries a database request every 60 seconds (up to five times) until it succeeds. The number and frequency of retries can be configured based on your application's needs.

In this code, replace <cluster> with your cluster name and <password> with your administrator password.

package test.crud;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.ResultSetMetaData;
import java.util.logging.Logger;
import com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource;

public class DemoApplication
{
    private static final Logger log;

    static
    {
        System.setProperty("java.util.logging.SimpleFormatter.format", "[%4$-7s] %5$s %n");
        log = Logger.getLogger(DemoApplication.class.getName());
    }
    private static final String DB_USERNAME = "citus";
    private static final String DB_PASSWORD = "<password>";
    private static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:postgresql://c.<cluster>.postgres.database.azure.com:5432/citus?sslmode=require";
    private static final String DB_DRIVER_CLASS = "org.postgresql.Driver";
    private static HikariDataSource datasource;

    private static String executeRetry(String sql, int retryCount) throws InterruptedException
    {
        Connection con = null;
        PreparedStatement pst = null;
        ResultSet rs = null;
        for (int i = 1; i <= retryCount; i++)
        {
            try
            {
                datasource = new HikariDataSource();
                datasource.setDriverClassName(DB_DRIVER_CLASS);
                datasource.setJdbcUrl(DB_URL);
                datasource.setUsername(DB_USERNAME);
                datasource.setPassword(DB_PASSWORD);
                datasource.setMinimumIdle(10);
                datasource.setMaximumPoolSize(1000);
                datasource.setAutoCommit(true);
                datasource.setLoginTimeout(3);
                log.info("Connecting to the database");
                con = datasource.getConnection();
                log.info("Connection established");
                log.info("Read data");
                pst = con.prepareStatement(sql);
                rs = pst.executeQuery();
                StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
                int columnCount = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
                while (rs.next())
                {
                    for (int j = 0; j < columnCount;)
                    {
                        builder.append(rs.getString(j + 1));
                        if (++j < columnCount)
                            builder.append(",");
                    }
                    builder.append("\r\n");
                }
                return builder.toString();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Thread.sleep(60000);
                System.out.println(e.getMessage());
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception
    {
        String result = executeRetry("select 1", 5);
        System.out.print(result);
    }
}

Next steps