Quickstart: Build a container image to deploy apps using Azure Pipelines
Azure DevOps Services
This quickstart shows how to build a container image for app deployment using Azure Pipelines. To build this image, all you need is a Dockerfile in your repository. You can build Linux or Windows containers, based on the agent that you use in your pipeline.
An Azure account with an active subscription. Create an account for free.
A GitHub account. If you don't have one, sign up for free.
A GitHub repository with a Dockerfile. If you don't have a repository to use, fork the following repository, which contains a sample application and a Dockerfile:
Build a Linux or Windows image
Sign in to your Azure DevOps organization, and go to your project.
Go to Pipelines, and select New Pipeline.
Select GitHub as the location for your source code.
Select your repository, and then select Starter pipeline.
- If you're redirected to GitHub to sign in, enter your GitHub credentials.
- If you're redirected to GitHub to install the Azure Pipelines app, select Approve and install.
Replace the contents of azure-pipelines.yml with the following code. Based on whether you're deploying a Linux or Windows app, make sure to respectively set
When you're done, select Save and run.
When you add the azure-pipelines.yml file to your repository, you're prompted to add a commit message.
Clean up resources
If you don't plan to continue using this application, delete your pipeline and code repository.
What agents can I use to build container images?
You can build Linux container images using Microsoft-hosted Ubuntu agents or Linux platform-based self-hosted agents.
You can build Windows container images using Microsoft-hosted Windows agents or Windows platform based self-hosted agents. All Microsoft-hosted Windows platform-based agents are shipped with the Moby engine and client needed for Docker builds.
You currently can't use Microsoft-hosted macOS agents to build container images because the Moby engine needed for building the images isn't pre-installed on these agents.
For more information, see the Windows and Linux agent options available with Microsoft-hosted agents.
What pre-cached images are available on hosted agents?
To avoid spending long intervals pulling these images for every job from the container registry, some commonly used images are pre-cached on Microsoft-hosted agents. For the list of available pre-cached images, see the release notes in the azure-pipelines-image-generation repository.
How do I set the BuildKit variable for my Docker builds?
BuildKit introduces build improvements around performance, storage management, feature functionality, and security. BuildKit currently isn't supported on Windows hosts.
To enable Docker builds using BuildKit, set the DOCKER_BUILDKIT variable.
How can I use a self-hosted agent?
Before you create your container image, make sure to install Docker on your self-hosted machine.
How can I create a script-based Docker build instead of using the Docker task?
You can use the
build command or any other Docker command.
docker build -f Dockerfile -t foobar.azurecr.io/hello:world .
This command creates an image equivalent to one built with the Docker task. Internally, the Docker task calls the Docker binary on a script and stitches together a few more commands to provide a few more benefits. Learn more about Docker task.
Can I reuse layer caching during builds on Azure Pipelines?
If you're using Microsoft-hosted agents, every job is dispatched to a newly provisioned virtual machine, based on the image generated from azure-pipelines-image-generation repository templates. These virtual machines are cleaned up after the job completes. This ephemeral lifespan prevents reusing these virtual machines for subsequent jobs and the reuse of cached Docker layers. As a workaround, you can set up a multi-stage build that produces two images and pushes them to an image registry at an early stage. You can then tell Docker to use these images as a cache source with the
If you're using self-hosted agents, you can cache Docker layers without any workarounds because the ephemeral lifespan problem doesn't apply to these agents.
How do I build Linux container images for architectures other than x64?
When you use Microsoft-hosted Linux agents, you create Linux container images for the x64 architecture. To create images for other architectures, such as x86 or ARM processor, you can use a machine emulator such as QEMU.
The following steps show how to create an ARM processor container image by using QEMU:
Author your Dockerfile with a base image that matches the target architecture:
Run the following script in your job before you build the image:
# register QEMU binary - this can be done by running the following image docker run --rm --privileged multiarch/qemu-user-static --reset -p yes # build your image
For more information, see qemu-user-static on GitHub.
How do I run tests and publish test results for containerized applications?
For different options on testing containerized applications and publishing the resulting test results, see Publish Test Results task.
After you build your container image, push the image to Azure Container Registry, Docker Hub, or Google Container registry. To learn how to push an image to a container registry, continue to either of the following articles: