IoT Plug and Play device developer guide

IoT Plug and Play lets you build IoT devices that advertise their capabilities to Azure IoT applications. IoT Plug and Play devices don't require manual configuration when a customer connects them to IoT Plug and Play-enabled applications.

You can implement an IoT device directly by using modules, or by using IoT Edge modules.

This guide describes the basic steps required to create a device, module, or IoT Edge module that follows the IoT Plug and Play conventions.

To build an IoT Plug and Play device, module, or IoT Edge module, follow these steps:

  1. Ensure your device is using either the MQTT or MQTT over WebSockets protocol to connect to Azure IoT Hub.
  2. Create a Digital Twins Definition Language (DTDL) V2 model to describe your device. To learn more, see Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models.
  3. Update your device or module to announce the model-id as part of the device connection.
  4. Implement telemetry, properties, and commands that follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions

Once your device or module implementation is ready, use the Azure IoT explorer to validate that the device follows the IoT Plug and Play conventions.

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

static const char g_ThermostatModelId[] = "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1";
IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceHandle = NULL;
deviceHandle = CreateDeviceClientLLHandle();
iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SetOption(
    deviceHandle, OPTION_MODEL_ID, g_ThermostatModelId);

Tip

For modules and IoT Edge, use IoTHubModuleClient_LL in place of IoTHubDeviceClient_LL.

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices that use the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload:

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you should decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections:

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, devices must set a message property with the component name:

void PnP_ThermostatComponent_SendTelemetry(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT_HANDLE pnpThermostatComponentHandle,
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL)
{
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent = (PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT*)pnpThermostatComponentHandle;
    IOTHUB_MESSAGE_HANDLE messageHandle = NULL;
    IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubResult;

    char temperatureStringBuffer[32];

    if (snprintf(
        temperatureStringBuffer,
        sizeof(temperatureStringBuffer),
        g_temperatureTelemetryBodyFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->currentTemperature) < 0)
    {
        LogError("snprintf of current temperature telemetry failed");
    }
    else if ((messageHandle = PnP_CreateTelemetryMessageHandle(
        pnpThermostatComponent->componentName, temperatureStringBuffer)) == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to create telemetry message");
    }
    else if ((iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendEventAsync(
        deviceClientLL, messageHandle, NULL, NULL)) != IOTHUB_CLIENT_OK)
    {
        LogError("Unable to send telemetry message, error=%d", iothubResult);
    }

    IoTHubMessage_Destroy(messageHandle);
}

// ...

PnP_ThermostatComponent_SendTelemetry(g_thermostatHandle1, deviceClient);

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

static const char g_maxTemperatureSinceRebootFormat[] = "{\"maxTempSinceLastReboot\":%.2f}";

char maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty[256];

snprintf(
    maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty,
    sizeof(maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty),
    g_maxTemperatureSinceRebootFormat,
    38.7);

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty,
    strlen(maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty), NULL, NULL));

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

When you use nested components, create properties within the component name and include a marker:

STRING_HANDLE PnP_CreateReportedProperty(
    const char* componentName,
    const char* propertyName,
    const char* propertyValue
)
{
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend;

    if (componentName == NULL) 
    {
        jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"%s\":%s}",
            propertyName, propertyValue);
    }
    else 
    {
       jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"""%s\":{\"__t\":\"c\",\"%s\":%s}}",
            componentName, propertyName, propertyValue);
    }

    if (jsonToSend == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to allocate JSON buffer");
    }

    return jsonToSend;
}

void PnP_TempControlComponent_Report_MaxTempSinceLastReboot_Property(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT_HANDLE pnpThermostatComponentHandle,
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL)
{
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent =
        (PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT*)pnpThermostatComponentHandle;
    char maximumTemperatureAsString[32];
    IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend = NULL;

    if (snprintf(maximumTemperatureAsString, sizeof(maximumTemperatureAsString),
        "%.2f", pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature) < 0)
    {
        LogError("Unable to create max temp since last reboot string for reporting result");
    }
    else if ((jsonToSend = PnP_CreateReportedProperty(
                pnpThermostatComponent->componentName,
                g_maxTempSinceLastRebootPropertyName,
                maximumTemperatureAsString)) == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to build max temp since last reboot property");
    }
    else
    {
        const char* jsonToSendStr = STRING_c_str(jsonToSend);
        size_t jsonToSendStrLen = strlen(jsonToSendStr);

        if ((iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
                deviceClientLL,
                (const unsigned char*)jsonToSendStr,
                jsonToSendStrLen, NULL, NULL)) != IOTHUB_CLIENT_OK)
        {
            LogError("Unable to send reported state, error=%d", iothubClientResult);
        }
        else
        {
            LogInfo("Sending maximumTemperatureSinceLastReboot property to IoTHub for component=%s",
                pnpThermostatComponent->componentName);
        }
    }

    STRING_delete(jsonToSend);
}

// ...

PnP_TempControlComponent_Report_MaxTempSinceLastReboot_Property(g_thermostatHandle1, deviceClient);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. If the back-end application updates a property, the client receives a notification as a callback in the DeviceClient or ModuleClient. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

If the property type is Object, the service must send a complete object to the device even if it's only updating a subset of the object's fields. The acknowledgment the device sends can also be a complete object.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
char targetTemperatureResponseProperty[256];

snprintf(
    targetTemperatureResponseProperty,
    sizeof(targetTemperatureResponseProperty),
    "{\"targetTemperature\":{\"value\":%.2f,\"ac\":%d,\"av\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\"}}",
    23.2, 200, 3, "Successfully updated target temperature");

iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)targetTemperatureResponseProperty,
    strlen(targetTemperatureResponseProperty), NULL, NULL);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker:

STRING_HANDLE PnP_CreateReportedPropertyWithStatus(const char* componentName,
    const char* propertyName, const char* propertyValue,
    int result, const char* description, int ackVersion
)
{
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend;

    if (componentName == NULL) 
    {
        jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"%s\":{\"value\":%s,\"ac\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\",\"av\":%d}}",
            propertyName, propertyValue,
            result, description, ackVersion);
    }
    else
    {
       jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"""%s\":{\"__t\":\"c\",\"%s\":{\"value\":%s,\"ac\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\",\"av\":%d}}}",
            componentName, propertyName, propertyValue,
            result, description, ackVersion);
    }

    if (jsonToSend == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to allocate JSON buffer");
    }

    return jsonToSend;
}

// ...

char targetTemperatureAsString[32];
IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend = NULL;

snprintf(targetTemperatureAsString,
    sizeof(targetTemperatureAsString),
    "%.2f",
    23.2);
jsonToSend = PnP_CreateReportedPropertyWithStatus(
    "thermostat1",
    "targetTemperature",
    targetTemperatureAsString,
    200,
    "complete",
    3);

const char* jsonToSendStr = STRING_c_str(jsonToSend);
size_t jsonToSendStrLen = strlen(jsonToSendStr);

iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)jsonToSendStr,
    jsonToSendStrLen, NULL, NULL);

STRING_delete(jsonToSend);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties, including the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

static void Thermostat_DeviceTwinCallback(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    // The device handle associated with this request is passed as the context,
    // since we will need to send reported events back.
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL =
        (IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE)userContextCallback;

    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    JSON_Object* desiredObject;
    JSON_Value* versionValue = NULL;
    JSON_Value* targetTemperatureValue = NULL;

    jsonStr = CopyTwinPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    desiredObject = GetDesiredJson(updateState, rootValue));
    targetTemperatureValue = json_object_get_value(desiredObject, "targetTemperature"));
    versionValue = json_object_get_value(desiredObject, "$version"));
    json_value_get_type(versionValue);
    json_value_get_type(targetTemperatureValue);

    double targetTemperature = json_value_get_number(targetTemperatureValue);
    int version = (int)json_value_get_number(versionValue);

    // ...

    // The device needs to let the service know that it has received the targetTemperature desired property.
    SendTargetTemperatureReport(deviceClientLL, targetTemperature, 200, version, "Successfully updated target temperature");

    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);
}

// ...

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubResult;
iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SetDeviceTwinCallback(
    deviceHandle, Thermostat_DeviceTwinCallback, (void*)deviceHandle))

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name, and should report back the ack reported property:

bool PnP_ProcessTwinData(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size, const char** componentsInModel,
    size_t numComponentsInModel,
    PnP_PropertyCallbackFunction pnpPropertyCallback,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    JSON_Object* desiredObject;
    bool result;

    jsonStr = PnP_CopyPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    desiredObject = GetDesiredJson(updateState, rootValue));
    
    result = VisitDesiredObject(
        desiredObject, componentsInModel,
        numComponentsInModel, pnpPropertyCallback,
        userContextCallback);


    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);

    return result;
}

// ...
static const char g_thermostatComponent1Name[] = "thermostat1";
static const size_t g_thermostatComponent1Size = sizeof(g_thermostatComponent1Name) - 1;
static const char g_thermostatComponent2Name[] = "thermostat2";

static const char* g_modeledComponents[] = {g_thermostatComponent1Name, g_thermostatComponent2Name};
static const size_t g_numModeledComponents = sizeof(g_modeledComponents) / sizeof(g_modeledComponents[0]);

static void PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceTwinCallback(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    void* userContextCallback
)
{
    PnP_ProcessTwinData(
        updateState, payload,
        size, g_modeledComponents,
        g_numModeledComponents,
        PnP_TempControlComponent_ApplicationPropertyCallback,
        userContextCallback);
}

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator.

void PnP_ParseCommandName(
    const char* deviceMethodName,
    unsigned const char** componentName,
    size_t* componentNameSize,
    const char** pnpCommandName
)
{
    const char* separator;

    if ((separator = strchr(deviceMethodName, "*")) != NULL)
    {
        *componentName = (unsigned const char*)deviceMethodName;
        *componentNameSize = separator - deviceMethodName;
        *pnpCommandName = separator + 1;
    }
    else
    {
        *componentName = NULL;
        *componentNameSize = 0;
        *pnpCommandName = deviceMethodName;
    }
}

static int PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceMethodCallback(
    const char* methodName,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    unsigned char** response,
    size_t* responseSize,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    (void)userContextCallback;

    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    int result;
    unsigned const char *componentName;
    size_t componentNameSize;
    const char *pnpCommandName;

    *response = NULL;
    *responseSize = 0;

    // Parse the methodName into its componentName and CommandName.
    PnP_ParseCommandName(methodName, &componentName, &componentNameSize, &pnpCommandName);

    // Parse the JSON of the payload request.
    jsonStr = PnP_CopyPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    if (componentName != NULL)
    {
        if (strncmp((const char*)componentName, g_thermostatComponent1Name, g_thermostatComponent1Size) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_ThermostatComponent_ProcessCommand(g_thermostatHandle1, pnpCommandName, rootValue, response, responseSize);
        }
        else if (strncmp((const char*)componentName, g_thermostatComponent2Name, g_thermostatComponent2Size) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_ThermostatComponent_ProcessCommand(g_thermostatHandle2, pnpCommandName, rootValue, response, responseSize);
        }
        else
        {
            LogError("PnP component=%.*s is not supported by TemperatureController", (int)componentNameSize, componentName);
            result = PNP_STATUS_NOT_FOUND;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        LogInfo("Received PnP command for TemperatureController component, command=%s", pnpCommandName);
        if (strcmp(pnpCommandName, g_rebootCommand) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_TempControlComponent_InvokeRebootCommand(rootValue);
        }
        else
        {
            LogError("PnP command=s%s is not supported by TemperatureController", pnpCommandName);
            result = PNP_STATUS_NOT_FOUND;
        }
    }

    if (*response == NULL)
    {
        SetEmptyCommandResponse(response, responseSize, &result);
    }

    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);

    return result;
}

// ...

PNP_DEVICE_CONFIGURATION g_pnpDeviceConfiguration;
g_pnpDeviceConfiguration.deviceMethodCallback = PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceMethodCallback;
deviceClient = PnP_CreateDeviceClientLLHandle(&g_pnpDeviceConfiguration);

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

static const char g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat[] = "{\"maxTemp\":%.2f,\"minTemp\":%.2f,\"avgTemp\":%.2f,\"startTime\":\"%s\",\"endTime\":\"%s\"}";

// ...

static bool BuildMaxMinCommandResponse(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent,
    unsigned char** response,
    size_t* responseSize)
{
    int responseBuilderSize = 0;
    unsigned char* responseBuilder = NULL;
    bool result;
    char currentTime[TIME_BUFFER_SIZE];

    BuildUtcTimeFromCurrentTime(currentTime, sizeof(currentTime));
    responseBuilderSize = snprintf(NULL, 0, g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->minTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->allTemperatures /
        pnpThermostatComponent->numTemperatureUpdates,
        g_programStartTime, currentTime));

    responseBuilder = calloc(1, responseBuilderSize + 1));

    responseBuilderSize = snprintf(
        (char*)responseBuilder, responseBuilderSize + 1, g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->minTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->allTemperatures / pnpThermostatComponent->numTemperatureUpdates,
        g_programStartTime,
        currentTime));

    *response = responseBuilder;
    *responseSize = (size_t)responseBuilderSize;

    return true;
}

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

SDKs

The code snippets in this article are based on samples that use the Azure IoT Middleware addon for Azure RTOS. The addon is a binding layer between the Azure RTOS and the Azure SDK for Embedded C.

The code snippets in this article are based on the following samples:

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"

// ...

#define SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"

// ...

status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_model_id_set(iothub_client_ptr, (UCHAR *)SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID, sizeof(SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID) - 1);

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices using the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload:

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

The sample uses the following code to send this payload:

#include "nx_azure_iot_provisioning_client.h"

// ...

#define SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
#define SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD "{\"modelId\":\"" SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "\"}"

// ...

status = nx_azure_iot_provisioning_client_registration_payload_set(prov_client_ptr, (UCHAR *)SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD, sizeof(SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD) - 1);

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you must decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections. To simplify working with the IoT Plug and Play conventions for components, the samples use the helper functions in nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h.

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, devices must set a message property with the component name. In the following snippet, component_name_ptr is the name of a component such as thermostat1. The helper function nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_telemetry_message_create defined in nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h adds the message property with the component name:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR telemetry_name[] = "temperature";

// ...

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_telemetry_send(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle, NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr)
{
UINT status;
NX_PACKET *packet_ptr;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
UINT buffer_length;

    // ...

    /* Create a telemetry message packet. */
    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_telemetry_message_create(iothub_client_ptr, handle -> component_name_ptr,
        handle -> component_name_length,
        &packet_ptr, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_telemetry_send(iothub_client_ptr, packet_ptr,
        (UCHAR *)scratch_buffer, buffer_length, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    return(status);
}

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot[] = "maxTempSinceLastReboot";

// ...

static UINT sample_build_reported_property(NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER *json_builder_ptr, double temp)
{
UINT ret;

    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(json_builder_ptr) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot,
            sizeof(reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot) - 1,
            temp, DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(json_builder_ptr))
    {
        ret = 1;
        printf("Failed to build reported property\r\n");
    }
    else
    {
        ret = 0;
    }

    return(ret);
}

// ...

if ((status = sample_build_reported_property(&json_builder, device_max_temp)))
{
    // ...
}

reported_properties_length = nx_azure_iot_json_writer_get_bytes_used(&json_builder);
if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_device_twin_reported_properties_send(&(context -> iothub_client),
    scratch_buffer,
    reported_properties_length,
    &request_id, &response_status,
    &reported_property_version,
    (5 * NX_IP_PERIODIC_RATE))))
{
    // ...
}

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

When you use nested components, properties must be created within the component name and include a marker. In the following snippet, component_name_ptr is the name of a component such as thermostat1. The helper function nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property defined in nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h creates the reported property in the correct format:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot[] = "maxTempSinceLastReboot";

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_report_max_temp_since_last_reboot_property(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle, NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr)
{
UINT reported_properties_length;
UINT status;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_builder;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property(handle -> component_name_ptr,
        handle -> component_name_length,
        append_max_temp, (VOID *)handle,
        &json_builder)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    reported_properties_length = nx_azure_iot_json_writer_get_bytes_used(&json_builder);
    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_device_twin_reported_properties_send(iothub_client_ptr,
        scratch_buffer,
        reported_properties_length,
        &request_id, &response_status,
        &reported_property_version,
        (5 * NX_IP_PERIODIC_RATE))))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...
}

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
    "reported": {
        "thermostat1" : {  
            "__t" : "c",  
            "maxTemperature" : 38.7
        } 
    }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_temp_property_name[] = "targetTemperature";
static const CHAR reported_value_property_name[] = "value";
static const CHAR reported_status_property_name[] = "ac";
static const CHAR reported_version_property_name[] = "av";
static const CHAR reported_description_property_name[] = "ad";

// ...

static VOID sample_send_target_temperature_report(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *context, double current_device_temp_value,
    UINT status, UINT version, UCHAR *description_ptr,
    UINT description_len)
{
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_builder;
UINT bytes_copied;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_name(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_temp_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_temp_property_name) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_value_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_value_property_name) - 1,
            current_device_temp_value, DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_int32_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_status_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_status_property_name) - 1,
            (int32_t)status) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_int32_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_version_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_version_property_name) - 1,
            (int32_t)version) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_description_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_description_property_name) - 1,
            description_ptr, description_len) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(&json_builder))
    {
        // ...
    }
    else
    // ...
}

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker and the properties must be created within the component name. In the following snippet, component_name_ptr is the name of a component such as thermostat1. The helper function nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property_with_status defined in nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h creates the reported property payload:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static VOID sample_send_target_temperature_report(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr, double temp,
    INT status_code, UINT version, const CHAR *description)
{
UINT bytes_copied;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if (nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property_with_status(handle -> component_name_ptr, handle -> component_name_length,
        (UCHAR *)target_temp_property_name,
        sizeof(target_temp_property_name) - 1,
        append_temp, (VOID *)&temp, status_code,
        (UCHAR *)description,
        strlen(description), version, &json_writer))
    {
        // ...
    }
    else
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...
}

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties and the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR temp_response_description[] = "success";

// ...

static UINT sample_parse_desired_temp_property(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *context,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr,
    UINT is_partial)
{
double parsed_value;
UINT version;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER copy_json_reader;
UINT status;

    // ...

    copy_json_reader = *json_reader_ptr;
    if (sample_json_child_token_move(&copy_json_reader,
            (UCHAR *)desired_version_property_name,
            sizeof(desired_version_property_name) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_reader_token_int32_get(&copy_json_reader, (int32_t *)&version))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    sample_send_target_temperature_report(context, current_device_temp, 200,
        (UINT)version, (UCHAR *)temp_response_description,
        sizeof(temp_response_description) - 1);

    // ...
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name and creates the reported ack with the received version:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR target_temp_property_name[] = "targetTemperature";
static const CHAR temp_response_description_success[] = "success";
static const CHAR temp_response_description_failed[] = "failed";

// ...

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_process_property_update(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr,
    UCHAR *component_name_ptr, UINT component_name_length,
    UCHAR *property_name_ptr, UINT property_name_length,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *property_value_reader_ptr, UINT version)
{
double parsed_value = 0;
INT status_code;
const CHAR *description;

    // ...

    if (property_name_length != (sizeof(target_temp_property_name) - 1) ||
        strncmp((CHAR *)property_name_ptr, (CHAR *)target_temp_property_name, property_name_length) != 0)
    {
        // ...
    }
    else if (nx_azure_iot_json_reader_token_double_get(property_value_reader_ptr, &parsed_value))
    {
        status_code = 401;
        description = temp_response_description_failed;
    }
    else
    {
        status_code = 200;
        description = temp_response_description_success;

        // ...
    }

    sample_send_target_temperature_report(handle, iothub_client_ptr, parsed_value,
                                          status_code, version, description);

    // ...
}

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator. In the following snippet, the helper function nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_command_name_parse defined in nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h parses the component name and command name from the message the device receives from the service:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static VOID sample_direct_method_action(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *sample_context_ptr)
{
NX_PACKET *packet_ptr;
UINT status;
USHORT method_name_length;
const UCHAR *method_name_ptr;
USHORT context_length;
VOID *context_ptr;
UINT component_name_length;
const UCHAR *component_name_ptr;
UINT pnp_command_name_length;
const UCHAR *pnp_command_name_ptr;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER json_reader;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr;
UINT status_code;
UINT response_length;

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_direct_method_message_receive(&(sample_context_ptr -> iothub_client),
        &method_name_ptr, &method_name_length,
        &context_ptr, &context_length,
        &packet_ptr, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_command_name_parse(method_name_ptr, method_name_length,
        &component_name_ptr, &component_name_length,
        &pnp_command_name_ptr,
        &pnp_command_name_length)) != NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
    {
        // ...
    }
    
    // ...

    else
    {
        // ...

        if ((status = sample_pnp_thermostat_process_command(&sample_thermostat_1, component_name_ptr,
            component_name_length, pnp_command_name_ptr,
            pnp_command_name_length, json_reader_ptr,
            &json_writer, &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else if ((status = sample_pnp_thermostat_process_command(&sample_thermostat_2, component_name_ptr,
            component_name_length, pnp_command_name_ptr,
            pnp_command_name_length, json_reader_ptr,
            &json_writer, &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else if((status = sample_pnp_temp_controller_process_command(component_name_ptr, component_name_length,
            pnp_command_name_ptr, pnp_command_name_length,
            json_reader_ptr, &json_writer,
            &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else
        {
            printf("Failed to find any handler for method %.*s\r\n", method_name_length, method_name_ptr);
            status_code = SAMPLE_COMMAND_NOT_FOUND_STATUS;
            response_length = 0;
        }

        // ...
    }
}

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR report_max_temp_name[] = "maxTemp";
static const CHAR report_min_temp_name[] = "minTemp";
static const CHAR report_avg_temp_name[] = "avgTemp";
static const CHAR report_start_time_name[] = "startTime";
static const CHAR report_end_time_name[] = "endTime";
static const CHAR fake_start_report_time[] = "2020-01-10T10:00:00Z";
static const CHAR fake_end_report_time[] = "2023-01-10T10:00:00Z";

// ...

static UINT sample_get_maxmin_report(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER *out_json_builder_ptr)
{
UINT status;
UCHAR *start_time = (UCHAR *)fake_start_report_time;
UINT start_time_len = sizeof(fake_start_report_time) - 1;
UCHAR time_buf[32];

    // ...

    /* Build the method response payload */
    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(out_json_builder_ptr) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_max_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_max_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> maxTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_min_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_min_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> minTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_avg_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_avg_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> avgTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_start_time_name,
            sizeof(report_start_time_name) - 1,
            (UCHAR *)start_time, start_time_len) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_end_time_name,
            sizeof(report_end_time_name) - 1,
            (UCHAR *)fake_end_report_time,
            sizeof(fake_end_report_time) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(out_json_builder_ptr))
    {
        status = NX_NOT_SUCCESSFUL;
    }
    else
    {
        status = NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS;
    }

    return(status);
}

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(
  connectionString,
  TransportType.Mqtt,
  new ClientOptions() { ModelId = modelId })

The new ClientOptions overload is available in all DeviceClient methods used to initialize a connection.

Tip

For modules and IoT Edge, use ModuleClient in place of DeviceClient.

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices using the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload:

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you must decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections.

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, devices must set a message property with the component name:

public async Task SendComponentTelemetryValueAsync(string componentName, string serializedTelemetry)
{
  var message = new Message(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(serializedTelemetry));
  message.ComponentName = componentName;
  message.ContentType = "application/json";
  message.ContentEncoding = "utf-8";
  await client.SendEventAsync(message);
}

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
reportedProperties["maxTemperature"] = 38.7;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
  }
}

When you use nested components, create properties within the component name and include a marker:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
component["maxTemperature"] = 38.7;
component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     } 
  }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. If the back-end application updates a property, the client receives a notification as a callback in the DeviceClient or ModuleClient. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

If the property type is Object, the service must send a complete object to the device even if it's only updating a subset of the object's fields. The acknowledgment the device sends must also be a complete object.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
ackProps["value"] = 23.2;
ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
ackProps["av"] = 0; // not readed from a desired property
ackProps["ad"] = "reported default value";
reportedProperties["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
ackProps["value"] = 23.2;
ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
ackProps["av"] = 0; // not read from a desired property
ackProps["ad"] = "reported default value";
component["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties, including the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

await client.SetDesiredPropertyUpdateCallbackAsync(async (desired, ctx) => 
{
  JValue targetTempJson = desired["targetTemperature"];
  double targetTemperature = targetTempJson.Value<double>();

  TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
  ackProps["value"] = targetTemperature;
  ackProps["ac"] = 200;
  ackProps["av"] = desired.Version; 
  ackProps["ad"] = "desired property received";
  reportedProperties["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;

  await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);
}, null);

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name, and should report back the ack reported property:

await client.SetDesiredPropertyUpdateCallbackAsync(async (desired, ctx) =>
{
  JObject thermostatComponent = desired["thermostat1"];
  JToken targetTempProp = thermostatComponent["targetTemperature"];
  double targetTemperature = targetTempProp.Value<double>();

  TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
  component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
  ackProps["value"] = targetTemperature;
  ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
  ackProps["av"] = desired.Version; // not readed from a desired property
  ackProps["ad"] = "desired property received";
  component["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
  reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;

  await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);
}, null);

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator.

await client.SetMethodHandlerAsync("themostat*reboot", (MethodRequest req, object ctx) =>
{
  Console.WriteLine("REBOOT");
  return Task.FromResult(new MethodResponse(200));
},
null);

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "start",
  "request": {
    "name": "startRequest",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "startPriority",
          "schema": "integer"
        },
        {
          "name": "startMessage",
          "schema" : "string"
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "response": {
    "name": "startReponse",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
            "name": "startupTime",
            "schema": "integer" 
        },
        {
          "name": "startupMessage",
          "schema": "string"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

class startRequest
{
  public int startPriority { get; set; }
  public string startMessage { get; set; }
}

class startResponse
{
  public int startupTime { get; set; }
  public string startupMessage { get; set; }
}

// ... 

await client.SetMethodHandlerAsync("start", (MethodRequest req, object ctx) =>
{
  var startRequest = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<startRequest>(req.DataAsJson);
  Console.WriteLine($"Received start command with priority ${startRequest.startPriority} and ${startRequest.startMessage}");

  var startResponse = new startResponse
  {
    startupTime = 123,
    startupMessage = "device started with message " + startRequest.startMessage
  };

  string responsePayload = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(startResponse);
  MethodResponse response = new MethodResponse(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(responsePayload), 200);
  return Task.FromResult(response);
},null);

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

ClientOptions options = new ClientOptions();
options.setModelId(MODEL_ID);
deviceClient = new DeviceClient(deviceConnectionString, protocol, options);

The ClientOptions overload is available in all DeviceClient methods used to initialize a connection.

Tip

For modules and IoT Edge, use ModuleClient in place of DeviceClient.

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices using the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload.

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you should decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections.

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, the device must set a message property with the component name:

private static void sendTemperatureTelemetry(String componentName) {
  double currentTemperature = temperature.get(componentName);

  Map<String, Object> payload = singletonMap("temperature", currentTemperature);

  Message message = new Message(gson.toJson(payload));
  message.setContentEncoding("utf-8");
  message.setContentTypeFinal("application/json");

  if (componentName != null) {
      message.setProperty("$.sub", componentName);
  }
  deviceClient.sendEventAsync(message, new MessageIotHubEventCallback(), message);
}

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

Property reportedProperty = new Property("maxTempSinceLastReboot", 38.7);

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedProperty));

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

When you use nested components, create properties within the component name and include a marker:

Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("__t", "c");
    put("maxTemperature", 38.7);
}};

Set<Property> reportedProperty = new Property("thermostat1", componentProperty)

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(reportedProperty);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. If the back-end application updates a property, the client receives a notification as a callback in the DeviceClient or ModuleClient. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

If the property type is Object, the service must send a complete object to the device even if it's only updating a subset of the object's fields. The acknowledgment the device sends must also be a complete object.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

@AllArgsConstructor
private static class EmbeddedPropertyUpdate {
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("value")
  public Object value;
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("ac")
  public Integer ackCode;
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("av")
  public Integer ackVersion;
  @SerializedName("ad")
  public String ackDescription;
}

EmbeddedPropertyUpdate completedUpdate = new EmbeddedPropertyUpdate(23.2, 200, 3, "Successfully updated target temperature");
Property reportedPropertyCompleted = new Property("targetTemperature", completedUpdate);
deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedPropertyCompleted));

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker:

Map<String, Object> embeddedProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("value", 23.2);
    put("ac", 200);
    put("av", 3);
    put("ad", "complete");
}};

Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("__t", "c");
    put("targetTemperature", embeddedProperty);
}};

Set<Property> reportedProperty = new Property("thermostat1", componentProperty));

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(reportedProperty);

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties, including the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

private static class TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback implements TwinPropertyCallBack {

    String propertyName = "targetTemperature";

    @Override
    public void TwinPropertyCallBack(Property property, Object context) {
        double targetTemperature = ((Number)property.getValue()).doubleValue();

        EmbeddedPropertyUpdate completedUpdate = new EmbeddedPropertyUpdate(temperature, 200, property.getVersion(), "Successfully updated target temperature");
        Property reportedPropertyCompleted = new Property(propertyName, completedUpdate);
        deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedPropertyCompleted));
    }
}

// ...

deviceClient.startDeviceTwin(new TwinIotHubEventCallback(), null, new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), null);
Map<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>> desiredPropertyUpdateCallback =
  Collections.singletonMap(
    new Property("targetTemperature", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), null));
deviceClient.subscribeToTwinDesiredProperties(desiredPropertyUpdateCallback);

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name, and should report back the ack reported property:

private static final Map<String, Double> temperature = new HashMap<>();

private static class TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback implements TwinPropertyCallBack {

    String propertyName = "targetTemperature";

    @Override
    public void TwinPropertyCallBack(Property property, Object context) {
        String componentName = (String) context;

        if (property.getKey().equalsIgnoreCase(componentName)) {
            double targetTemperature = (double) ((TwinCollection) property.getValue()).get(propertyName);

            Map<String, Object> embeddedProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
                put("value", temperature.get(componentName));
                put("ac", 200);
                put("av", property.getVersion().longValue());
                put("ad", "Successfully updated target temperature.");
            }};

            Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
                put("__t", "c");
                put(propertyName, embeddedProperty);
            }};

            Set<Property> completedPropertyPatch = new Property(componentName, componentProperty));

            deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(completedPropertyPatch);
        } else {
            log.debug("Property: Received an unrecognized property update from service.");
        }
    }
}

// ...

deviceClient.startDeviceTwin(new TwinIotHubEventCallback(), null, new GenericPropertyUpdateCallback(), null);
Map<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>> desiredPropertyUpdateCallback = Stream.of(
  new AbstractMap.SimpleEntry<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>>(
    new Property("thermostat1", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), "thermostat1")),
  new AbstractMap.SimpleEntry<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>>(
    new Property("thermostat2", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), "thermostat2"))
).collect(Collectors.toMap(AbstractMap.SimpleEntry::getKey, AbstractMap.SimpleEntry::getValue));

deviceClient.subscribeToTwinDesiredProperties(desiredPropertyUpdateCallback);

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator.

deviceClient.subscribeToDeviceMethod(new MethodCallback(), null, new MethodIotHubEventCallback(), null);

// ...
private static final Map<String, Double> temperature = new HashMap<>();

private static class MethodCallback implements DeviceMethodCallback {
  final String reboot = "reboot";
  final String getMaxMinReport1 = "thermostat1*getMaxMinReport";
  final String getMaxMinReport2 = "thermostat2*getMaxMinReport";

  @Override
  public DeviceMethodData call(String methodName, Object methodData, Object context) {
    String jsonRequest = new String((byte[]) methodData, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);

    switch (methodName) {
      case reboot:
        int delay = gson.fromJson(jsonRequest, Integer.class);

        Thread.sleep(delay * 1000);

        temperature.put("thermostat1", 0.0d);
        temperature.put("thermostat2", 0.0d);

        return new DeviceMethodData(200, null);

      // ...

      default:
        log.debug("Command: command=\"{}\" is not implemented, no action taken.", methodName);
          return new DeviceMethodData(404, null);
    }
  }
}

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

deviceClient.subscribeToDeviceMethod(new GetMaxMinReportMethodCallback(), "getMaxMinReport", new MethodIotHubEventCallback(), "getMaxMinReport");

// ...

private static class GetMaxMinReportMethodCallback implements DeviceMethodCallback {
    String commandName = "getMaxMinReport";

    @Override
    public DeviceMethodData call(String methodName, Object methodData, Object context) {

        String jsonRequest = new String((byte[]) methodData, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        Date since = gson.fromJson(jsonRequest, Date.class);

        String responsePayload = String.format(
                "{\"maxTemp\": %.1f, \"minTemp\": %.1f, \"avgTemp\": %.1f, \"startTime\": \"%s\", \"endTime\": \"%s\"}",
                maxTemp,
                minTemp,
                avgTemp,
                since,
                endTime);

        return new DeviceMethodData(StatusCode.COMPLETED.value, responsePayload);
    }
}

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

const modelIdObject = { modelId: 'dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1' };
const client = Client.fromConnectionString(deviceConnectionString, Protocol);
await client.setOptions(modelIdObject);
await client.open();

Tip

For modules and IoT Edge, use ModuleClient in place of Client.

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices using the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload.

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you must decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections.

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, devices must set a message property with the component name:

async function sendTelemetry(deviceClient, data, index, componentName) {
  const msg = new Message(data);
  if (!!(componentName)) {
    msg.properties.add(messageSubjectProperty, componentName);
  }
  msg.contentType = 'application/json';
  msg.contentEncoding = 'utf-8';
  await deviceClient.sendEvent(msg);
}

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

const createReportPropPatch = (propertiesToReport) => {
  let patch;
  patch = { };
  patch = propertiesToReport;
  return patch;
};

deviceTwin = await client.getTwin();
patchThermostat = createReportPropPatch({
  maxTempSinceLastReboot: 38.7
});

deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patchThermostat, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

When you use nested components, properties must be created within the component name and include a marker:

helperCreateReportedPropertiesPatch = (propertiesToReport, componentName) => {
  let patch;
  if (!!(componentName)) {
    patch = { };
    propertiesToReport.__t = 'c';
    patch[componentName] = propertiesToReport;
  } else {
    patch = { };
    patch = propertiesToReport;
  }
  return patch;
};

deviceTwin = await client.getTwin();
patchThermostat1Info = helperCreateReportedPropertiesPatch({
  maxTempSinceLastReboot: 38.7,
}, 'thermostat1');

deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patchThermostat1Info, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
     } 
  }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. If the back-end application updates a property, the client receives a notification as a callback in the Client or ModuleClient. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

If the property type is Object, the service must send a complete object to the device even if it's only updating a subset of the object's fields. The acknowledgment the device sends must also be a complete object.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

patch = {
  targetTemperature:
    {
      'value': 23.2,
      'ac': 200,  // using HTTP status codes
      'ad': 'reported default value',
      'av': 0  // not read from a desired property
    }
};
deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patch, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "targetTemperature": {
      "value": 23.2,
      "ac": 200,
      "av": 0,
      "ad": "reported default value"
    }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker:

patch = {
  thermostat1: {
    '__t' : 'c',
    targetTemperature: {
      'value': 23.2,
      'ac': 200,  // using HTTP status codes
      'ad': 'reported default value',
      'av': 0  // not read from a desired property
    }
  }
};
deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patch, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 0,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties, including the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

const propertyUpdateHandler = (deviceTwin, propertyName, reportedValue, desiredValue, version) => {
  const patch = createReportPropPatch(
    { [propertyName]:
      {
        'value': desiredValue,
        'ac': 200,
        'ad': 'Successfully executed patch for ' + propertyName,
        'av': version
      }
    });
  updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patch);
};

desiredPropertyPatchHandler = (deviceTwin) => {
  deviceTwin.on('properties.desired', (delta) => {
    const versionProperty = delta.$version;

    Object.entries(delta).forEach(([propertyName, propertyValue]) => {
      if (propertyName !== '$version') {
        propertyUpdateHandler(deviceTwin, propertyName, null, propertyValue, versionProperty);
      }
    });
  });
};

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name, and should report back the ack reported property:

const desiredPropertyPatchListener = (deviceTwin, componentNames) => {
  deviceTwin.on('properties.desired', (delta) => {
    Object.entries(delta).forEach(([key, values]) => {
      const version = delta.$version;
      if (!!(componentNames) && componentNames.includes(key)) { // then it is a component we are expecting
        const componentName = key;
        const patchForComponents = { [componentName]: {} };
        Object.entries(values).forEach(([propertyName, propertyValue]) => {
          if (propertyName !== '__t' && propertyName !== '$version') {
            const propertyContent = { value: propertyValue };
            propertyContent.ac = 200;
            propertyContent.ad = 'Successfully executed patch';
            propertyContent.av = version;
            patchForComponents[componentName][propertyName] = propertyContent;
          }
        });
        updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patchForComponents, componentName);
      }
      else if  (key !== '$version') { // individual property for root
        const patchForRoot = { };
        const propertyContent = { value: values };
        propertyContent.ac = 200;
        propertyContent.ad = 'Successfully executed patch';
        propertyContent.av = version;
        patchForRoot[key] = propertyContent;
        updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patchForRoot, null);
      }
    });
  });
};

The device twin for components shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator.

const commandHandler = async (request, response) => {
  switch (request.methodName) {
  
  // ...

  case 'thermostat1*reboot': {
    await response.send(200, 'reboot response');
    break;
  }
  default:
    await response.send(404, 'unknown method');
    break;
  }
};

client.onDeviceMethod('thermostat1*reboot', commandHandler);

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

class TemperatureSensor {

  // ...

  getMaxMinReportObject() {
    return {
      maxTemp: this.maxTemp,
      minTemp: this.minTemp,
      avgTemp: this.cumulativeTemperature / this.numberOfTemperatureReadings,
      endTime: (new Date(Date.now())).toISOString(),
      startTime: this.startTime
    };
  }
}

// ...

const deviceTemperatureSensor = new TemperatureSensor();

const commandHandler = async (request, response) => {
  switch (request.methodName) {
  case commandMaxMinReport: {
    console.log('MaxMinReport ' + request.payload);
    await response.send(200, deviceTemperatureSensor.getMaxMinReportObject());
    break;
  }
  default:
    await response.send(404, 'unknown method');
    break;
  }
};

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

Model ID announcement

To announce the model ID, the device must include it in the connection information:

device_client = IoTHubDeviceClient.create_from_symmetric_key(
    symmetric_key=symmetric_key,
    hostname=registration_result.registration_state.assigned_hub,
    device_id=registration_result.registration_state.device_id,
    product_info=model_id,
)

Tip

For modules and IoT Edge, use IoTHubModuleClient in place of IoTHubDeviceClient.

Tip

This is the only time a device can set model ID, it can't be updated after the device connects.

DPS payload

Devices using the Device Provisioning Service (DPS) can include the modelId to be used during the provisioning process by using the following JSON payload.

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

Use components

As described in Understand components in IoT Plug and Play models, you must decide if you want to use components to describe your devices. When you use components, devices must follow the rules described in the following sections.

Telemetry

A default component doesn't require any special property added to the telemetry message.

When you use nested components, devices must set a message property with the component name:

async def send_telemetry_from_temp_controller(device_client, telemetry_msg, component_name=None):
    msg = Message(json.dumps(telemetry_msg))
    msg.content_encoding = "utf-8"
    msg.content_type = "application/json"
    if component_name:
        msg.custom_properties["$.sub"] = component_name
    await device_client.send_message(msg)

Read-only properties

Reporting a property from the default component doesn't require any special construct:

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties({"maxTempSinceLastReboot": 38.7})

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

When using nested components, properties must be created within the component name and include a marker:

inner_dict = {}
inner_dict["targetTemperature"] = 38.7
inner_dict["__t"] = "c"
prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["thermostat1"] = inner_dict

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

Writable properties

These properties can be set by the device or updated by the back-end application. If the back-end application updates a property, the client receives a notification as a callback in the IoTHubDeviceClient or IoTHubModuleClient. To follow the IoT Plug and Play conventions, the device must inform the service that the property was successfully received.

If the property type is Object, the service must send a complete object to the device even if it's only updating a subset of the object's fields. The acknowledgment the device sends must also be a complete object.

Report a writable property

When a device reports a writable property, it must include the ack values defined in the conventions.

To report a writable property from the default component:

prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["targetTemperature"] = {
    "ac": 200,
    "ad": "reported default value",
    "av": 0,
    "value": 23.2
}

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "targetTemperature": {
      "value": 23.2,
      "ac": 200,
      "av": 0,
      "ad": "reported default value"
    }
  }
}

To report a writable property from a nested component, the twin must include a marker:

inner_dict = {}
inner_dict["targetTemperature"] = {
    "ac": 200,
    "ad": "reported default value",
    "av": 0,
    "value": 23.2
}
inner_dict["__t"] = "c"
prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["thermostat1"] = inner_dict

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

The device twin is updated with the following reported property:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 0,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Subscribe to desired property updates

Services can update desired properties that trigger a notification on the connected devices. This notification includes the updated desired properties, including the version number identifying the update. Devices must include this version number in the ack message sent back to the service.

A default component sees the single property and creates the reported ack with the received version:

async def execute_property_listener(device_client):
    ignore_keys = ["__t", "$version"]
    while True:
        patch = await device_client.receive_twin_desired_properties_patch()  # blocking call

        version = patch["$version"]
        prop_dict = {}

        for prop_name, prop_value in patch.items():
            if prop_name in ignore_keys:
                continue
            else:
                prop_dict[prop_name] = {
                    "ac": 200,
                    "ad": "Successfully executed patch",
                    "av": version,
                    "value": prop_value,
                }

        await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

The device twin for a nested component shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

A nested component receives the desired properties wrapped with the component name, and should report back the ack reported property:

def create_reported_properties_from_desired(patch):
    ignore_keys = ["__t", "$version"]
    component_prefix = list(patch.keys())[0]
    values = patch[component_prefix]

    version = patch["$version"]
    inner_dict = {}

    for prop_name, prop_value in values.items():
        if prop_name in ignore_keys:
            continue
        else:
            inner_dict["ac"] = 200
            inner_dict["ad"] = "Successfully executed patch"
            inner_dict["av"] = version
            inner_dict["value"] = prop_value
            values[prop_name] = inner_dict

    properties_dict = dict()
    if component_prefix:
        properties_dict[component_prefix] = values
    else:
        properties_dict = values

    return properties_dict

async def execute_property_listener(device_client):
    while True:
        patch = await device_client.receive_twin_desired_properties_patch()  # blocking call
        properties_dict = create_reported_properties_from_desired(patch)

        await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(properties_dict)

The device twin for components shows the desired and reported sections as follows:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

Commands

A default component receives the command name as it was invoked by the service.

A nested component receives the command name prefixed with the component name and the * separator.

command_request = await device_client.receive_method_request("thermostat1*reboot")

Request and response payloads

Commands use types to define their request and response payloads. A device must deserialize the incoming input parameter and serialize the response.

The following example shows how to implement a command with complex types defined in the payloads:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The following code snippets show how a device implements this command definition, including the types used to enable serialization and deserialization:

def create_max_min_report_response(values):
    response_dict = {
        "maxTemp": max_temp,
        "minTemp": min_temp,
        "avgTemp": sum(avg_temp_list) / moving_window_size,
        "startTime": (datetime.now() - timedelta(0, moving_window_size * 8)).isoformat(),
        "endTime": datetime.now().isoformat(),
    }
    # serialize response dictionary into a JSON formatted str
    response_payload = json.dumps(response_dict, default=lambda o: o.__dict__, sort_keys=True)
    return response_payload

Tip

The request and response names aren't present in the serialized payloads transmitted over the wire.

Next steps

Now that you've learned about IoT Plug and Play device development, here are some other resources: