Monitor metrics on Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server

APPLIES TO: Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server

Monitoring data about your servers helps you troubleshoot and optimize for your workload. Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides various monitoring options to provide insight into the behavior of your server.

Metrics

Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides various metrics that give insight into the behavior of the resources supporting the PostgreSQL server. Each metric is emitted at a one-minute frequency, and has up to 93 days of history. You can configure alerts on the metrics. Other options include setting up automated actions, performing advanced analytics, and archiving history. For more information, see the Azure Metrics Overview.

List of metrics

The following metrics are available for PostgreSQL flexible server:

Display Name Metric ID Unit Description
Active Connections active_connections Count The number of connections to your server.
Backup Storage Used backup_storage_used Bytes Amount of backup storage used. This metric represents the sum of storage consumed by all the full backups, differential backups, and log backups retained based on the backup retention period set for the server. The frequency of the backups is service managed. For geo-redundant storage, backup storage usage is twice that of the locally redundant storage.
Failed Connections connections_failed Count Failed connections.
Succeeded Connections connections_succeeded Count Succeeded connections.
CPU Credits Consumed cpu_credits_consumed Count Number of credits used by the flexible server. Applicable to Burstable tier.
CPU Credits Remaining cpu_credits_remaining Count Number of credits available to burst. Applicable to Burstable tier.
CPU percent cpu_percent Percent Percentage of CPU in use.
Disk Queue Depth disk_queue_depth Count Number of outstanding I/O operations to the data disk.
IOPS iops Count Number of I/O operations to disk per second.
Maximum Used Transaction IDs maximum_used_transactionIDs Count Maximum transaction ID in use.
Memory percent memory_percent Percent Percentage of memory in use.
Network Out network_bytes_egress Bytes Amount of outgoing network traffic.
Network In network_bytes_ingress Bytes Amount of incoming network traffic.
Read IOPS read_iops Count Number of data disk I/O read operations per second.
Read Throughput read_throughput Bytes Bytes read per second from disk.
Storage Free storage_free Bytes The amount of storage space available.
Storage percent storage_percent Percentage Percent of storage space used. The storage used by the service may include the database files, transaction logs, and the server logs.
Storage Used storage_used Bytes Amount of storage space used. The storage used by the service may include the database files, transaction logs, and the server logs.
Transaction Log Storage Used txlogs_storage_used Bytes Amount of storage space used by the transaction logs.
Write Throughput write_throughput Bytes Bytes written per second to disk.
Write IOPS write_iops Count Number of data disk I/O write operations per second.

Enhanced Metrics

Introducing Enhanced Metrics for Azure Database for PostgreSQL Flexible Server to enable more fine grained monitoring and alerting on databases. You can configure alerts on the metrics. In addition, some of these new Metrics now also include ‘Dimension’ that will allow to split and filter the metrics data by using the allowed dimension such as Database Name, State etc.

Enabling enhanced metrics

  • Most of these new metrics are disabled by default, barring a few exceptions (per the list below)
  • To enable these metrics, please turn ON the server parameter metrics.collector_database_activity. This parameter is dynamic, and will not require instance restart.

List of enhanced metrics

Activity
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Sessions By State (Preview) sessions_by_state Count Overall state of the backends State No
Sessions By WaitEventType (Preview) sessions_by_wait_event_type Count Sessions by the type of event for which the backend is waiting Wait Event Type No
Oldest Backend (Preview) oldest_backend_time_sec Seconds The age in seconds of the oldest backend (irrespective of the state) N/a No
Oldest Query (Preview) longest_query_time_sec Seconds The age in seconds of the longest query that is currently running N/a No
Oldest Transaction (Preview) longest_transaction_time_sec Seconds The age in seconds of the longest transaction (including idle transactions) N/a No
Oldest xmin (Preview) oldest_backend_xmin Count The actual value of the oldest xmin. If xmin is not increasing it indicates there are some long running transactions that can potentially hold dead tuples from being removed N/a No
Oldest xmin Age (Preview) oldest_backend_xmin_age Count Age in units of the oldest xmin. It indicated how many transactions passed since oldest xmin N/a No
Database
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Backends (Preview) numbackends Count Number of backends connected to this database Database Name No
Deadlocks (Preview) deadlocks Count Number of deadlocks detected in this database Database Name No
Disk Blocks Hit (Preview) blks_hit Count Number of times disk blocks were found already in the buffer cache, so that a read was not necessary Database Name No
Disk Blocks Read (Preview) blks_read Count Number of disk blocks read in this database Database Name No
Temporary Files (Preview) temp_files Count Number of temporary files created by queries in this database Database Name No
Temporary Files Size (Preview) temp_bytes Bytes Total amount of data written to temporary files by queries in this database Database Name No
Total Transactions (Preview) xact_total Count Number of total transactions executed in this database Database Name No
Transactions Committed (Preview) xact_commit Count Number of transactions in this database that have been committed Database Name No
Transactions Rolled back (Preview) xact_rollback Count Number of transactions in this database that have been rolled back Database Name No
Tuples Deleted (Preview) tup_deleted Count Number of rows deleted by queries in this database Database Name No
Tuples Fetched (Preview) tup_fetched Count Number of rows fetched by queries in this database Database Name No
Tuples Inserted (Preview) tup_inserted Count Number of rows inserted by queries in this database Database Name No
Tuples Returned (Preview) tup_returned Count Number of rows returned by queries in this database Database Name No
Tuples Updated (Preview) tup_updated Count Number of rows updated by queries in this database Database Name No
Logical Replication
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Max Logical Replication Lag (Preview) logical_replication_delay_in_bytes Bytes Maximum lag across all logical replication slots N/a Yes
Replication
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Max Physical Replication Lag (Preview) physical_replication_delay_in_bytes Bytes Maximum lag across all asynchronous physical replication slots N/a Yes
Read Replica Lag (Preview) physical_replication_delay_in_seconds Seconds Read Replica lag in seconds N/a Yes
Saturation
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Disk Bandwidth Consumed Percentage disk_bandwidth_consumed_percentage Percent Percentage of data disk bandwidth consumed per minute N/a Yes
Disk IOPS Consumed Percentage disk_iops_consumed_percentage Percent Percentage of data disk I/Os consumed per minute N/a Yes
Traffic
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description Dimension Default enabled
Max Connections^ max_connections Count Max Connections N/a Yes

^ Max Connections here represents the configured value for max_connections server parameter, and this metric is pooled every 30 minutes.

Applying Filters and Splitting on enhanced metrics

In the above list of metrics, some of the metrics have dimension such as database name, state etc. Filtering and Splitting are allowed for the metrics that have dimensions. These features show how various metric segments ("dimension values") affect the overall value of the metric. You can use them to identify possible outliers.

  • Filtering lets you choose which dimension values are included in the chart. For example, you might want to show idle connections when you chart the Sessions-by-State metric. You apply the filter on the idle on state dimension.
  • Splitting controls whether the chart displays separate lines for each value of a dimension or aggregates the values into a single line. For example, you can see one line for an Sessions-by-State metric across all sessions. Or you can see separate lines for each session grouped by their state. You apply splitting on the State dimension to see separate lines.

Here in this example below, we have done splitting by State dimension and filtered on a specific state types.

Screenshot of sessions by state.

For more details on setting-up charts with dimensional metrics, see Metric chart examples

Considerations when using the enhanced metrics

  • There is 50 database limit on metrics with database name dimension.
    • On Burstable SKU - this limit is 10 database name dimension
  • database name dimension limit is applied on OiD column (in other words Order-of-Creation of the database)
  • The database name in metrics dimension is case insensitive. Therefore the metrics for same database names in varying case (ex. foo, FoO, FOO) will be merged, and may not show accurate data.

Server logs

In addition to the metrics, Azure Database for PostgreSQL also allows you to configure and access PostgreSQL standard logs. To learn more about logs, visit the logging concepts doc.