Monitor and tune Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server

APPLIES TO: Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server


Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server is on the retirement path. We strongly recommend that you upgrade to Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server. For more information about migrating to Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server, see What's happening to Azure Database for PostgreSQL Single Server?.

Monitoring data about your servers helps you troubleshoot and optimize for your workload. Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides various monitoring options to provide insight into the behavior of your server.


Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides various metrics that give insight into the behavior of the resources supporting the PostgreSQL server. Each metric is emitted at a one-minute frequency, and has up to 93 days of history. You can configure alerts on the metrics. For step by step guidance, see How to set up alerts. Other tasks include setting up automated actions, performing advanced analytics, and archiving history. For more information, see the Azure Metrics Overview.

List of metrics

These metrics are available for Azure Database for PostgreSQL:

Display Name Metric ID Unit Description
Failed Connections connections_failed Count The number of established connections that failed.
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description
Max Lag Across Replicas pg_replica_log_delay_in_bytes Bytes The lag in bytes between the primary and the most-lagging replica. This metric is available on the primary server only.
Replica Lag pg_replica_log_delay_in_seconds Seconds The time since the last replayed transaction. This metric is available for replica servers only.
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description
Backup Storage Used backup_storage_used Bytes The amount of backup storage used. This metric represents the sum of storage consumed by all the full database backups, differential backups, and log backups retained based on the backup retention period set for the server. The frequency of the backups is service managed and explained in the concepts article. For geo-redundant storage, backup storage usage is twice that of the locally redundant storage.
CPU percent cpu_percent Percent The percentage of CPU in use.
IO percent io_consumption_percent Percent The percentage of IO in use. (Not applicable for Basic tier servers.)
Memory percent memory_percent Percent The percentage of memory in use.
Server Log storage limit serverlog_storage_limit Bytes The maximum server log storage for this server.
Server Log storage percent serverlog_storage_percent Percent The percentage of server log storage used out of the server's maximum server log storage.
Server Log storage used serverlog_storage_usage Bytes The amount of server log storage in use.
Storage limit storage_limit Bytes The maximum storage for this server.
Storage percentage storage_percent Percent The percentage of storage used out of the server's maximum.
Storage used storage_used Bytes The amount of storage in use. The storage used by the service may include the database files, transaction logs, and the server logs.
Display Name Metric ID Unit Description
Active Connections active_connections Count The number of active connections to the server.
Network Out network_bytes_egress Bytes Network Out across active connections.
Network In network_bytes_ingress Bytes Network In across active connections.

Server logs

You can enable logging on your server. These resource logs can be sent to Azure Monitor logs, Event Hubs, and a Storage Account. To learn more about logging, visit the server logs page.

Query Store

Query Store keeps track of query performance over time including query runtime statistics and wait events. The feature persists query runtime performance information in a system database named azure_sys under the query_store schema. You can control the collection and storage of data via various configuration knobs.

Query Performance Insight

Query Performance Insight works in conjunction with Query Store to provide visualizations accessible from the Azure portal. These charts enable you to identify key queries that impact performance. Query Performance Insight is accessible from the Intelligent Performance section of your Azure Database for PostgreSQL server's portal page.

Performance Recommendations

The Performance Recommendations feature identifies opportunities to improve workload performance. Performance Recommendations provides you with recommendations for creating new indexes that have the potential to improve the performance of your workloads. To produce index recommendations, the feature takes into consideration various database characteristics, including its schema and the workload as reported by Query Store. After implementing any performance recommendation, customers should test performance to evaluate the impact of those changes.

Planned maintenance notification

Planned maintenance notifications allow you to receive alerts for upcoming planned maintenance to your Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server. These notifications are integrated with Service Health's planned maintenance and allow you to view all scheduled maintenance for your subscriptions in one place. It also helps to scale the notification to the right audiences for different resource groups, as you may have different contacts responsible for different resources. You will receive the notification about the upcoming maintenance 72 hours before the event.

Learn more about how to set up notifications in the planned maintenance notifications document.

Next steps