Develop with Q# and .NET program

The Q# programming language is built to work well with .NET languages such as C# and F#. This guide demonstrates how to use Q# with a host program written in a .NET language.

First you will create the Q# application and .NET host, and make a call to Q# from the host.


Set up your .NET environment with the Microsoft Quantum Development Kit following the steps in Set up the Quantum Development Kit.

Creating a Q# library and a .NET host

The first step is to create projects for your Q# library, and for the .NET host that will call into the operations and functions defined in your Q# library.

Follow the instructions in the tab corresponding to your development environment. If you are using an editor other than Visual Studio or VS Code, simply follow the command prompt steps.

  • Install the QDK templates package

    dotnet new -i Microsoft.Quantum.ProjectTemplates
  • Create a new Q# library

    dotnet new classlib -lang Q# -o quantum
  • Create a new C# or F# console project

    dotnet new console -lang C# -o host  
  • Add your Q# library as a reference from your host program

    cd host
    dotnet add reference ../quantum/quantum.csproj
  • [Optional] Create a solution for both projects

    dotnet new sln -n quantum-dotnet
    dotnet sln quantum-dotnet.sln add ./quantum/quantum.csproj
    dotnet sln quantum-dotnet.sln add ./host/host.csproj

Calling into Q# from .NET

Once you have your projects set up following the above instructions, you can call into Q# from your .NET console application. The Q# compiler will create .NET classes for each Q# operation and function that allow you to run your quantum programs on a simulator.

For example, the .NET interoperability sample includes the following example of a Q# operation:

namespace Microsoft.Quantum.Samples {
    open Microsoft.Quantum.Intrinsic;
    open Microsoft.Quantum.Canon;
    open Microsoft.Quantum.Arrays;
    open Microsoft.Quantum.Measurement;

    /// # Summary
    /// A quantum oracle which implements the following function:
    /// f(x₀, …, xₙ₋₁) = Σᵢ (rᵢ xᵢ + (1 - rᵢ)(1 - xᵢ)) modulo 2 for a given bit vector r = (r₀, …, rₙ₋₁).
    /// # Input
    /// ## r
    /// A bit vector of length N
    /// ## x
    /// N qubits in arbitrary state |x⟩ (input register)
    /// ## y
    /// A qubit in arbitrary state |y⟩ (output qubit)
    operation ApplyProductWithNegationFunction (vector : Bool[], controls : Qubit[], target : Qubit)
    : Unit is Adj {
        for (bit, control) in Zipped(vector, controls) {
            ControlledOnInt(bit ? 1 | 0, X)([control], target);

    /// # Summary
    /// Reconstructs the parameters of the oracle in a single query
    /// # Input
    /// ## N
    /// The number of qubits in the input register N for the function f
    /// ## oracle
    /// A quantum operation which implements the oracle |x⟩|y⟩ -> |x⟩|y ⊕ f(x)⟩, where
    /// x is an N-qubit input register, y is a 1-qubit answer register, and f is a Boolean function.
    /// The function f implemented by the oracle can be represented as
    /// f(x₀, …, xₙ₋₁) = Σᵢ (rᵢ xᵢ + (1 - rᵢ)(1 - xᵢ)) modulo 2 for some bit vector r = (r₀, …, rₙ₋₁).
    /// # Output
    /// A bit vector r which generates the same oracle as the given one
    /// Note that this doesn't have to be the same bit vector as the one used to initialize the oracle!
    operation ReconstructOracleParameters(N : Int, oracle : ((Qubit[], Qubit) => Unit)) : Bool[] {
        use x = Qubit[N];
        use y = Qubit();

        // apply oracle to qubits in all 0 state
        oracle(x, y);

        // f(x) = Σᵢ (rᵢ xᵢ + (1 - rᵢ)(1 - xᵢ)) = 2 Σᵢ rᵢ xᵢ + Σᵢ rᵢ + Σᵢ xᵢ + N = Σᵢ rᵢ + N
        // remove the N from the expression
        if (N % 2 == 1) {

        // now y = Σᵢ rᵢ

        // measure the output register
        let m = MResetZ(y);

        // before releasing the qubits make sure they are all in |0⟩ state
        return m == One
                ? ConstantArray(N, false) w/ 0 <- true
                | ConstantArray(N, false);

    /// # Summary
    /// Instantiates the oracle and runs the parameter restoration algorithm.
    operation RunAlgorithm(bits : Bool[]) : Bool[] {
        Message("Hello, quantum world!");
        // construct an oracle using the input array
        let oracle = ApplyProductWithNegationFunction(bits, _, _);
        // run the algorithm on this oracle and return the result
        return ReconstructOracleParameters(Length(bits), oracle);

To call this operation from .NET on a quantum simulator, you can use the Run method of the RunAlgorithm .NET class generated by the Q# compiler:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using static System.Diagnostics.Debug;

using Microsoft.Quantum.Simulation.Core;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Simulation.Simulators;

namespace Microsoft.Quantum.Samples
    static class Program
        static async Task Main(string[] args)
            var bits = new[] { false, true, false };
            using var sim = new QuantumSimulator();

            Console.WriteLine($"Input: {bits.ToDelimitedString()}");

            var restored = await RunAlgorithm.Run(sim, new QArray<bool>(bits));
            Console.WriteLine($"Output: {restored.ToDelimitedString()}");

            Assert(bits.Parity() == restored.Parity());

        static bool Parity(this IEnumerable<bool> bitVector) =>
                (acc, next) => acc ^ next

        static string ToDelimitedString(this IEnumerable<bool> values) =>
            String.Join(", ", values.Select(x => x.ToString()));

Next steps

Now that you have the Quantum Development Kit set up for both Q# applications and interoperability with .NET, you can write and run your first quantum program.