Obtaining resource counts

The cost of simulating $n$ qubits on classical computers scales exponentially with $n$. This greatly limits the size of a quantum chemistry simulation we may perform with the full-state simulator. For large instances of chemistry, we may nevertheless obtain useful information. Here, we examine how resource costs, such as the number of T-gates or CNOT gates, for simulating chemistry may be obtained in an automated fashion using the trace simulator. Such information informs us of when quantum computers might be large enough to run these quantum chemistry algorithms. For reference, see the provided GetGateCount sample.

Let us assume that we already have a FermionHamiltonian instance, say, loaded from the Broombridge schema as discussed in the loading-from-file example.

// The code snippets in this section require the following namespaces.
// Make sure to include these at the top of your file or namespace.
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.Broombridge;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.OrbitalIntegrals;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.Fermion;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.Paulis;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.QSharpFormat;
using Microsoft.Quantum.Simulation.Simulators.QCTraceSimulators;
using System.Linq;
    // Filename of Hamiltonian to be loaded.
    var filename = @"...";
    // This creates a stream that can be passed to the deserializer
    using var textReader = System.IO.File.OpenText(filename);

    // This deserializes Broombridge.
    var problem = BroombridgeSerializer.Deserialize(textReader).First();

    // This extracts the `OrbitalIntegralHamiltonian` from Broombridge format,
    // then converts it to a fermion Hamiltonian, then to a Jordan-Wigner
    // representation.
    var orbitalIntegralHamiltonian = problem.OrbitalIntegralHamiltonian;
    var fermionHamiltonian = orbitalIntegralHamiltonian.ToFermionHamiltonian(IndexConvention.UpDown);
    var jordanWignerEncoding = fermionHamiltonian.ToPauliHamiltonian(QubitEncoding.JordanWigner);

    // The desired initial state, assuming that a description of it is present in the
    // Broombridge schema.
    var state = "...";
    var wavefunction = problem.InitialStates[state].ToIndexing(IndexConvention.UpDown);

    // This is a data structure representing the Jordan-Wigner encoding 
    // of the Hamiltonian that we may pass to a Q# algorithm.
    var qSharpHamiltonianData = jordanWignerEncoding.ToQSharpFormat();
    var qSharpWavefunctionData = wavefunction.ToQSharpFormat();
    var qSharpData = Convert.ToQSharpFormat(qSharpHamiltonianData, qSharpWavefunctionData);

The syntax for obtaining resource estimates is almost identical to running the algorithm on the full-state simulator. We simply choose a different target machine. For the purposes of resource estimates, it suffices to evaluate the cost of a single Trotter step, or a quantum walk created by the Qubitization technique. The boilerplate for invoking these algorithms is as follows.

open Microsoft.Quantum.Intrinsic;
open Microsoft.Quantum.Chemistry.JordanWigner;

/// This allocates qubits and applies a single Trotter step.
operation RunTrotterStep (qSharpData: JordanWignerEncodingData) : Unit {

    // The data describing the Hamiltonian for all these steps is contained in
    // `qSharpData`
    // We use a Product formula, also known as `Trotterization` to
    // simulate the Hamiltonian.
    // The integrator step size does not affect the gate cost of a single step.
    let trotterStepSize = 1.0;

    // Order of integrator
    let trotterOrder = 1;
    let (nQubits, (rescaleFactor, oracle)) = TrotterStepOracle(qSharpData, trotterStepSize, trotterOrder);

    // We not allocate qubits an run a single step.
    use qubits = Qubit[nQubits];

/// This allocates qubits and applies a single qubitization step.
operation RunQubitizationStep (qSharpData: JordanWignerEncodingData) : Double {

    // The data describing the Hamiltonian for all these steps is contained in
    // `qSharpData`
    let (nQubits, (l1Norm, oracle)) = QubitizationOracle(qSharpData);

    // We now allocate qubits and run a single step.
    use qubits = Qubit[nQubits] {

    return l1Norm;

We now configure the trace simulator to track the resources we are interested in. In this case, we count primitive quantum operations by setting the usePrimitiveOperationsCounter flag to true. A technical detail throwOnUnconstraintMeasurement is set to false to avoid exceptions in cases where the Q# code does not correctly assert of probability of measurement outcomes, if any are performed.

private static QCTraceSimulator CreateAndConfigureTraceSim()
    // Create and configure Trace Simulator
    var config = new QCTraceSimulatorConfiguration()
        UsePrimitiveOperationsCounter = true,
        ThrowOnUnconstrainedMeasurement = false

    return new QCTraceSimulator(config);

We now run the quantum algorithm from the driver program as follows.

    // Instantiate a trace simulator instance
    QCTraceSimulator sim = CreateAndConfigureTraceSim();

    // Run the quantum algorithm on the trace simulator.
    RunQubitizationStep.Run(sim, qSharpData);

    // Print all resource counts to file.
    var gateStats = sim.ToCSV();
    foreach (var x in gateStats)
        System.IO.File.WriteAllLines($"QubitizationGateCountEstimates.{x.Key}.csv", new string[] { x.Value });