Advanced Security Information Model (ASIM) schemas
An Advanced Security Information Model (ASIM) schema is a set of fields that represent an activity. Using the fields from a normalized schema in a query ensures that the query will work with every normalized source.
To understand how schemas fit within the ASIM architecture, refer to the ASIM architecture diagram.
Schema references outline the fields that comprise each schema. ASIM currently defines the following schemas:
ASIM schemas and parsers are currently in preview. The Azure Preview Supplemental Terms include additional legal terms that apply to Azure features that are in beta, preview, or otherwise not yet released into general availability.
The following concepts help to understand the schema reference documents and extend the schema in a normalized manner in case your data includes information that the schema doesn't cover.
|Field names||At the core of each schema are its field names. Field names belong to the following groups:
- Fields common to all schemas.
- Fields specific to a schema.
- Fields that represent entities, such as users, which take part in the schema. Fields that represent entities are similar across schemas.
When sources have fields that aren't presented in the documented schema, they're normalized to maintain consistency. If the extra fields represent an entity, they'll be normalized based on the entity field guidelines. Otherwise, the schemas strive to keep consistency across all schemas.
For example, while DNS server activity logs don't provide user information, DNS activity logs from an endpoint might include user information, which can be normalized according to the user entity guidelines.
|Field types||Each schema field has a type. The Log Analytics workspace has a limited set of data types. For this reason, Microsoft Sentinel uses a logical type for many schema fields, which Log Analytics doesn't enforce but is required for schema compatibility. Logical field types ensure that both values and field names are consistent across sources.
For more information, see Logical types.
|Field class||Fields might have several classes, which define when the fields should be implemented by a parser:
- Mandatory fields must appear in every parser. If your source doesn't provide information for this value, or the data can't be otherwise added, it won't support most content items that reference the normalized schema.
- Recommended fields should be normalized if available. However, they might not be available in every source. Any content item that references that normalized schema should take availability into account.
- Optional fields, if available, can be normalized or left in their original form. Typically, a minimal parser wouldn't normalize them for performance reasons.
- Conditional fields are mandatory if the field they follow is populated. Conditional fields are typically used to describe the value in another field. For example, the common field DvcIdType describes the value int the common field DvcId and is therefore mandatory if the latter is populated.
- Alias is a special type of a conditional field, and is mandatory if the aliased field is populated.
|Common fields||Some fields are common to all ASIM schemas. Each schema might add guidelines for using some of the common fields in the context of the specific schema. For example, permitted values for the EventType field might vary per schema, as might the value of the EventSchemaVersion field.|
|Entities||Events evolve around entities, such as users, hosts, processes, or files. Each entity might require several fields to describe it. For example, a host might have a name and an IP address.
A single record might include multiple entities of the same type, such as both a source and destination host.
ASIM defines how to describe entities consistently, and entities allow for extending the schemas.
For example, while the Network Session schema doesn't include process information, some event sources do provide process information that can be added. For more information, see Entities.
|Aliases||Aliases allow multiple names for a specified value. In some cases, different users expect a field to have different names. For example, in DNS terminology, you might expect a field named DnsQuery, while more generally, it holds a domain name. The alias Domain helps the user by allowing the use of both names.
In some cases, an alias can have the value of one of several fields, depending on which values are available in the event. For example, the Dvc alias, aliases either the DvcFQDN, DvcId, DvcHostname, or DvcIpAddr , or Event Product fields. When an alias can have several values, its type has to be a string to accommodate all possible aliased values. As a result, when assigning a value to such an alias, make sure to convert the type to string using the KQL function tostring.
Native normalized tables do not include aliases, as those would imply duplicate data storage. Instead the stub parsers add the aliases. To implement aliases in parsers, create a copy of the original value by using the
Each schema field has a type. Some have built-in, Log Analytics types, such as
dynamic. Other fields have a Logical type, which represents how the field values should be normalized.
|Data type||Physical type||Format and value|
|Boolean||Bool||Use the built-in KQL
|Enumerated||String||A list of values as explicitly defined for the field. The schema definition lists the accepted values.|
|Date/Time||Depending on the ingestion method capability, use any of the following physical representations in descending priority:
- Log Analytics built-in datetime type
- An integer field using Log Analytics datetime numerical representation.
- A string field using Log Analytics datetime numerical representation
- A string field storing a supported Log Analytics date/time format.
|Log Analytics date and time representation is similar but different than Unix time representation. For more information, see the conversion guidelines.
Note: When applicable, the time should be time zone adjusted.
|MAC address||String||Colon-Hexadecimal notation.|
|IP address||String||Microsoft Sentinel schemas don't have separate IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Any IP address field might include either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address, as follows:
- IPv4 in a dot-decimal notation.
- IPv6 in 8-hextets notation, allowing for the short form.
- IPv6 short form:
|FQDN||String||A fully qualified domain name using a dot notation, for example,
|Hostname||String||A hostname which is not an FQDN, includes up to 63 characters including letters, numbers and hyphens. For more information, see The Device entity.|
|DomainType||Enumerated||The type of domain stored in domain and FQDN fields. For a list of values and more information, see The Device entity.|
|DvcIdType||Enumerated||The type of the device ID stored in DvcId fields. For a list of allowed values and further information refer to DvcIdType.|
|DeviceType||Enumerated||The type of the device stored in DeviceType fields. Possible values include:
|Username||String||A valid username in one of the supported types. For more information, see The User entity.|
|UsernameType||Enumerated||The type of username stored in username fields. For more information and list of supported values, see The User entity.|
|UserIdType||Enumerated||The type of the ID stored in user ID fields.
Supported values are
|UserType||Enumerated||The type of a user. For more information and list of allowed values, see The User entity.|
|AppType||Enumerated||The type of an application. Supported values include:
|Country||String||A string using ISO 3166-1, according to the following priority:
- Alpha-2 codes, such as
- Alpha-3 codes, such as
- Short name.
The list of codes can be found on the International Standards Organization (ISO) website.
|Region||String||The country subdivision name, using ISO 3166-2.
The list of codes can be found on the International Standards Organization (ISO) website.
|Longitude||Double||ISO 6709 coordinate representation (signed decimal).|
|Latitude||Double||ISO 6709 coordinate representation (signed decimal).|
Events evolve around entities, such as users, hosts, processes, or files. Entity representation allows several entities of the same type to be part of a single record, and support multiple attributes for the same entities.
To enable entity functionality, entity representation has the following guidelines:
|Descriptors and aliasing||Since a single event often includes more than one entity of the same type, such as source and destination hosts, descriptors are used as a prefix to identify all of the fields that are associated with a specific entity.
To maintain normalization, ASIM uses a small set of standard descriptors, picking the most appropriate ones for the specific role of the entities.
If a single entity of a type is relevant for an event, there's no need to use a descriptor. Also, a set of fields without a descriptor aliases the most used entity for each type.
|Identifiers and types||A normalized schema allows for several identifiers for each entity, which we expect to coexist in events. If the source event has other entity identifiers that can't be mapped to the normalized schema, keep them in the source form or use the AdditionalFields dynamic field.
To maintain the type information for the identifiers, store the type, when applicable, in a field with the same name and a suffix of Type. For example, UserIdType.
|Attributes||Entities often have other attributes that don't serve as an identifier and can also be qualified with a descriptor. For example, if the source user has domain information, the normalized field is SrcUserDomain.|
Each schema explicitly defines the central entities and entity fields. The following guidelines enable you to understand the central schema fields, and how to extend schemas in a normalized manner by using other entities or entity fields that aren't explicitly defined in the schema.
The User entity
Users are central to activities reported by events. The fields listed in this section are used to describe the users involved in the action. Prefixes are used to designate the role of the user in the activity. The prefixes
Dst are used to designate the user role in network related events, in which a source system and a destination system communicate. The prefixes 'Actor' and 'Target' are used for system oriented events such as process events.
The user ID and scope
|UserId||Optional||String||A machine-readable, alphanumeric, unique representation of the user.|
|UserScope||Optional||string||The scope in which UserId and Username are defined. For example, an Azure AD tenant domain name. The UserIdType field represents also the type of the associated with this field.|
|UserScopeId||Optional||string||The ID of the scope in which UserId and Username are defined. For example, an Azure AD tenant directory ID. The UserIdType field represents also the type of the associated with this field.|
|UserIdType||Optional||UserIdType||The type of the ID stored in the UserId field.|
|UserSid, UserUid, UserAadId, UserOktaId, UserAWSId, UserPuid||Optional||String||Fields used to store specific user IDs. Select the ID most associated with the event as the primary ID stored in UserId. Populate the relevant specific ID field, in addition to UserId, even if the event has only one ID.|
|UserAADTenant, UserAWSAccount||Optional||String||Fields used to store specific scopes. Use the UserScope field for the scope associated with the ID stored in the UserId field. Populate the relevant specific scope field, in addition to UserScope, even if the event has only one ID.|
The allowed values for a user ID type are:
|SID||A Windows user ID.||
|UID||A Linux user ID.||
|AADID||An Azure Active Directory user ID.||
|OktaId||An Okta user ID.||
|AWSId||An AWS user ID.||
|PUID||A Microsoft 365 User ID.||
The user name
|Username||Optional||String||The source username, including domain information when available. Use the simple form only if domain information isn't available. Store the Username type in the UsernameType field.|
|UsernameType||Optional||UsernameType||Specifies the type of the username stored in the Username field.|
|UserUPN, WindowsUsername, DNUsername, SimpleUsername||Optional||String||Fields used to store additional usernames, if the original event includes multiple usernames. Select the username most associated with the event as the primary username stored in Username.|
The allowed values for a username type are:
|UPN||A UPN or Email address username designator.||
|Windows||A Windows username including a domain.||
|DN||An LDAP distinguished name designator.||
|Simple||A simple user name without a domain designator.||
|AWSId||An AWS user ID.||
Additional user fields
|UserType||Optional||UserType||The type of source user. Supported values include:
|OriginalUserType||Optional||String||The original destination user type, if provided by the reporting device.|
The device entity
Devices, or hosts, are the common terms used for the systems that take part in the event. The
Dvc prefix is used to designate the primary device on which the event occurs. Some events, such as network sessions, have source and destination devices, designated by the prefix
Dst. In such a case, the
Dvc prefix is used for the device reporting the event, which might be the source, destination, or a monitoring device.
The device aliases
|Dvc, Src, Dst||Mandatory||String||The
The device name
Reported device names may include a hostname only, or a fully qualified domain name (FQDN), which includes a hostname and a domain name. The FQDN might be expressed using several formats. The following fields enable supporting the different variants in which the device name might be provided.
|Hostname||Recommended||Hostname||The short hostname of the device.|
|Domain||Recommended||String||The domain of the device on which the event occurred, without the hostname.|
|DomainType||Recommended||Enumerated||The type of Domain. Supported values include
|FQDN||Optional||String||The FQDN of the device including both Hostname and Domain . This field supports both traditional FQDN format and Windows domain\hostname format. The DomainType field reflects the format used.|
|Field||Value for input
||value for input
When the value provided by the source is an FQDN, or when the value may be either and FQDN or a short hostname, the parser should calculate the 4 values. Use the ASIM helper functions
_ASIM_ResolveDvcFQDN to easily set all four fields based on a single input value. For more information, see ASIM helper functions.
The device ID and Scope
|DvcId||Optional||String||The unique ID of the device . For example:
|ScopeId||Optional||String||The cloud platform scope ID the device belongs to. Scope map to a subscription ID on Azure and to an account ID on AWS.|
|Scope||Optional||String||The cloud platform scope the device belongs to. Scope map to a subscription on Azure and to an account on AWS.|
|DvcIdType||Optional||Enumerated||The type of DvcId. Typically this field will also identify the type of Scope and ScopeId. This field is required if the DvcId field is used.|
|DvcAzureResourceId, DvcMDEid, DvcMD4IoTid, DvcVMConnectionId, DvcVectraId, DvcAwsVpcId||Optional||String||Fields used to store additional device IDs, if the original event includes multiple device IDs. Select the device ID most associated with the event as the primary ID stored in DvcId.|
Note that fields named should prepend a role prefix such as
Dst, but should not prepend a second
Dvc prefix if used in that role.
The allowed values for a device ID type are:
|MDEid||The system ID assigned by Microsoft Defender for Endpoint.|
|AzureResourceId||The Azure resource ID.|
|MD4IoTid||The Microsoft Defender for IoT resource ID.|
|VMConnectionId||The Azure Monitor VM Insights solution resource ID.|
|AwsVpcId||An AWS VPC ID.|
|VectraId||A Vectra AI assigned resource ID.|
|Other||An ID type not listed above.|
For example, the Azure Monitor VM Insights solution provides network sessions information in the
VMConnection. The table provides an Azure Resource ID in the
_ResourceId field and a VM insights specific device ID in the
Machine field. Use the following mapping to represent those IDs:
Additional device fields
|IpAddr||Recommended||IP address||The IP address of the device.
|DvcDescription||Optional||String||A descriptive text associated with the device. For example:
|MacAddr||Optional||MAC||The MAC address of the device on which the event occurred or which reported the event.
|Zone||Optional||String||The network on which the event occurred or which reported the event, depending on the schema. The zone is defined by the reporting device.
|DvcOs||Optional||String||The operating system running on the device on which the event occurred or which reported the event.
|DvcOsVersion||Optional||String||The version of the operating system on the device on which the event occurred or which reported the event.
|DvcAction||Optional||String||For reporting security systems, the action taken by the system, if applicable.
|DvcOriginalAction||Optional||String||The original DvcAction as provided by the reporting device.|
|Interface||Optional||String||The network interface on which data was captured. This field is typically relevant to network related activity which is captured by an intermediate or tap device.|
Note that fields named in the list with the Dvc prefix should prepend a role prefix such as
Dst, but should not prepend a second
Dvc prefix if used in that role.
Sample entity mapping
This section uses Windows event 4624 as an example to describe how the event data is normalized for Microsoft Sentinel.
This event has the following entities:
|Microsoft terminology||Original event field prefix||ASIM field prefix||Description|
||The user that reported information about a successful sign-in.|
||The user for which the sign-in was performed.|
||The process that attempted the sign-in.|
||The machine from which a sign-in attempt was performed.|
Based on these entities, Windows event 4624 is normalized as follows (some fields are optional):
|Normalized field||Original field||Value in example||Notes|
|ActorUserName||SubjectDomainName\ SubjectUserName||WORKGROUP\WIN-GG82ULGC9GO$||Built by concatenating the two fields|
|TargetUserName||TargetDomainName\ TargetUserName||Administrator\WIN-GG82ULGC9GO$||Built by concatenating the two fields|
This article provides an overview of normalization in Microsoft Sentinel and ASIM.
For more information, see: