Key Vault virtual machine extension for Windows

The Key Vault VM extension provides automatic refresh of certificates stored in an Azure key vault. Specifically, the extension monitors a list of observed certificates stored in key vaults, and, upon detecting a change, retrieves, and installs the corresponding certificates. This document details the supported platforms, configurations, and deployment options for the Key Vault VM extension for Windows.

Operating system

The Key Vault VM extension supports below versions of Windows:

  • Windows Server 2022
  • Windows Server 2019
  • Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012

The Key Vault VM extension is also supported on custom local VM that is uploaded and converted into a specialized image for use in Azure using Windows Server 2019 core install.

Note

The Key Vault VM extension downloads all the certificates in the windows certificate store or to the location provided by "certificateStoreLocation" property in the VM extension settings.

Supported certificate content types

  • PKCS #12
  • PEM

Updates in Version 3.0

  • Ability to add ACL permission to downloaded certificates
  • Certificate Store configuration per certificate
  • Exportable private keys

Prerequisites

"identity": {
  "type": "UserAssigned",
  "userAssignedIdentities": {
    "[parameters('userAssignedIdentityResourceId')]": {}
  }
}
  • AKV extension should have this setting:
"authenticationSettings": {
  "msiEndpoint": "[parameters('userAssignedIdentityEndpoint')]",
  "msiClientId": "[reference(parameters('userAssignedIdentityResourceId'), variables('msiApiVersion')).clientId]"
}

Note

The old Access Policy permission model is also supported for providing access to VM/VMSS. It requires policy with 'get' and 'list' permissions on secrets, see Assign a Key Vault access policy.

Extension schema

The following JSON shows the schema for the Key Vault VM extension. The extension doesn't require protected settings - all its settings are considered public information.

    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/extensions",
      "name": "KVVMExtensionForWindows",
      "apiVersion": "2022-08-01",
      "location": "<location>",
      "dependsOn": [
          "[concat('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/', <vmName>)]"
      ],
      "properties": {
      "publisher": "Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault",
      "type": "KeyVaultForWindows",
      "typeHandlerVersion": "1.0",
      "autoUpgradeMinorVersion": true,
      "settings": {
        "secretsManagementSettings": {
          "pollingIntervalInS": <string specifying polling interval in seconds, e.g: "3600">,
          "certificateStoreName": <certificate store name, e.g.: "MY">,
          "linkOnRenewal": <Only Windows. This feature ensures s-channel binding when certificate renews, without necessitating a re-deployment.  e.g.: false>,
          "certificateStoreLocation": <certificate store location, currently it works locally only e.g.: "LocalMachine">,
          "requireInitialSync": <initial synchronization of certificates e..g: true>,
          "observedCertificates": <list of KeyVault URIs representing monitored certificates, e.g.: "[https://myvault.vault.azure.net/secrets/mycertificate]">
        },
        "authenticationSettings": {
          "msiEndpoint":  <Required when msiClientId is provided. MSI endpoint e.g. for most Azure VMs: "http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token">,
          "msiClientId":  <Required when VM has any user assigned identities. MSI identity e.g.: "c7373ae5-91c2-4165-8ab6-7381d6e75619".>
        }
       }
      }
    }

Note

Your observed certificates URLs should be of the form https://myVaultName.vault.azure.net/secrets/myCertName.

This is because the /secrets path returns the full certificate, including the private key, while the /certificates path does not. More information about certificates can be found here: Key Vault Certificates

Important

The 'authenticationSettings' property is required for VMs with any user assigned identities and recommended to use with a system-assigned identity, to avoid issues with VM extension with multiple identities. It specifies identity to use for authentication to Key Vault.

Property values

Name Value / Example Data Type
apiVersion 2022-08-01 date
publisher Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault string
type KeyVaultForWindows string
typeHandlerVersion 1.0 int
pollingIntervalInS 3600 string
certificateStoreName MY string
linkOnRenewal true boolean
certificateStoreLocation LocalMachine or CurrentUser (case sensitive) string
requireInitialSync false boolean
observedCertificates ["https://myvault.vault.azure.net/secrets/mycertificate", "https://myvault.vault.azure.net/secrets/mycertificate2"] string array
msiEndpoint http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token string
msiClientId c7373ae5-91c2-4165-8ab6-7381d6e75619 string

Template deployment

Azure VM extensions can be deployed with Azure Resource Manager templates. Templates are ideal when deploying one or more virtual machines that require post deployment refresh of certificates. The extension can be deployed to individual VMs or Virtual Machine Scale Sets. The schema and configuration are common to both template types.

The JSON configuration for a key vault extension is nested inside the virtual machine or Virtual Machine Scale Set template. For Virtual Machine resource extension is nested under "resources": [] virtual machine object and Virtual Machine Scale Set under "virtualMachineProfile":"extensionProfile":{"extensions" :[] object.

    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/extensions",
      "name": "KeyVaultForWindows",
      "apiVersion": "2022-08-01",
      "location": "<location>",
      "dependsOn": [
          "[concat('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/', <vmName>)]"
      ],
      "properties": {
      "publisher": "Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault",
      "type": "KeyVaultForWindows",
      "typeHandlerVersion": "1.0",
      "autoUpgradeMinorVersion": true,
      "settings": {
        "secretsManagementSettings": {
          "pollingIntervalInS": <string specifying polling interval in seconds, e.g: "3600">,
          "linkOnRenewal": <Only Windows. This feature ensures s-channel binding when certificate renews, without necessitating a re-deployment.  e.g.: true>,          
          "certificateStoreName": <certificate store name, e.g.: "MY">,
          "certificateStoreLocation": <certificate store location, currently it works locally only e.g.: "LocalMachine">,
          "observedCertificates": <list of KeyVault URIs representing monitored certificates, e.g.: ["https://myvault.vault.azure.net/secrets/mycertificate", "https://myvault.vault.azure.net/secrets/mycertificate2"]>
        },
          "authenticationSettings": {
          "msiEndpoint":  <Required when msiClientId is provided. MSI endpoint e.g. for most Azure VMs: "http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token">,
          "msiClientId":  <Required when VM has any user assigned identities. MSI identity e.g.: "c7373ae5-91c2-4165-8ab6-7381d6e75619".>
        }      
      }
      }
    }

Extension Dependency Ordering

The Key Vault VM extension supports extension ordering if configured. By default the extension reports that it has successfully started as soon as it has started polling. However, it can be configured to wait until it has successfully downloaded the complete list of certificates before reporting a successful start. If other extensions depend on having the full set of certificates installed before they start, then enabling this setting will allow those extensions to declare a dependency on the Key Vault extension. It will prevent extensions from starting until all certificates they depend on have been installed. The extension will retry the initial download indefinitely and remain in a Transitioning state.

To enable waiting for certificate to be installed, set the following setting:

"secretsManagementSettings": {
    "requireInitialSync": true,
    ...
}

Note

Using this feature is not compatible with an ARM template that creates a system assigned identity and updates a Key Vault access policy with that identity. Doing so will result in a deadlock as the vault access policy cannot be updated until all extensions have started. You should instead use a single user assigned MSI identity and pre-ACL your vaults with that identity before deploying.

Azure PowerShell deployment

Warning

PowerShell clients often add \ to " in the settings.json, which causes akvvm_service to fail with the error [CertificateManagementConfiguration] Failed to parse the configuration settings with:not an object. The extra \ and " characters will be visible in the portal, in Extensions under Settings. To avoid this, initialize $settings as a PowerShell HashTable:

$settings = @{"secretsManagementSettings" = @{"pollingIntervalInS"="<pollingInterval>"; "certificateStoreName"="<certStoreName>";"certificateStoreLocation"="<certStoreLoc>";"observedCertificates"=@("<observedCert1>", "<observedCert2>")};"authenticationSettings"=@{"msiEndpoint"="<msiEndpoint>";"msiClientId"="<msiClientId>"} }

The Azure PowerShell can be used to deploy the Key Vault VM extension to an existing virtual machine or Virtual Machine Scale Set.

  • Deploy the extension on a VM:

        # Build settings
        $settings = '{"secretsManagementSettings": 
        { "pollingIntervalInS": "' + <pollingInterval> + 
        '", "certificateStoreName": "' + <certStoreName> + 
        '", "certificateStoreLocation": "' + <certStoreLoc> + 
        '", "observedCertificates": ["' + <observedCert1> + '","' + <observedCert2> + '"] }, 
        "authenticationSettings":
        { "msiEndpoint": "' + <msiEndpoint> +
        '", "msiClientId" :"' + <msiClientId> + '"}}' 
        $extName =  "KeyVaultForWindows"
        $extPublisher = "Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault"
        $extType = "KeyVaultForWindows"
    
        # Start the deployment
        Set-AzVmExtension -TypeHandlerVersion "1.0" -ResourceGroupName <ResourceGroupName> -Location <Location> -VMName <VMName> -Name $extName -Publisher $extPublisher -Type $extType  -SettingString $settings
    
    
  • Deploy the extension on a Virtual Machine Scale Set :

    
        # Build settings
        $settings = '{"secretsManagementSettings": 
        { "pollingIntervalInS": "' + <pollingInterval> + 
        '", "certificateStoreName": "' + <certStoreName> + 
        '", "certificateStoreLocation": "' + <certStoreLoc> + 
        '", "observedCertificates": ["' + <observedCert1> + '","' + <observedCert2> + '"] } }, 
        "authenticationSettings":
        { "msiEndpoint": "' + <msiEndpoint> +
        '", "msiClientId" :"' + <msiClientId> + '"}}' 
        $extName = "KeyVaultForWindows"
        $extPublisher = "Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault"
        $extType = "KeyVaultForWindows"
    
        # Add Extension to VMSS
        $vmss = Get-AzVmss -ResourceGroupName <ResourceGroupName> -VMScaleSetName <VmssName>
        Add-AzVmssExtension -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss  -Name $extName -Publisher $extPublisher -Type $extType -TypeHandlerVersion "1.0" -Setting $settings
    
        # Start the deployment
        Update-AzVmss -ResourceGroupName <ResourceGroupName> -VMScaleSetName <VmssName> -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss 
    
    

Azure CLI deployment

The Azure CLI can be used to deploy the Key Vault VM extension to an existing virtual machine or Virtual Machine Scale Set.

  • Deploy the extension on a VM:

       # Start the deployment
         az vm extension set --name "KeyVaultForWindows" `
         --publisher Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault `
         --resource-group "<resourcegroup>" `
         --vm-name "<vmName>" `
         --settings '{\"secretsManagementSettings\": { \"pollingIntervalInS\": \"<pollingInterval>\", \"certificateStoreName\": \"<certStoreName>\", \"certificateStoreLocation\": \"<certStoreLoc>\", \"observedCertificates\": [\" <observedCert1> \", \" <observedCert2> \"] },
         \"authenticationSettings\": { \"msiEndpoint\": \"<msiEndpoint>\", \"msiClientId\": \"<msiClientId>\"}}'
    
  • Deploy the extension on a Virtual Machine Scale Set :

          # Start the deployment
          az vmss extension set --name "KeyVaultForWindows" `
           --publisher Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault `
           --resource-group "<resourcegroup>" `
           --vmss-name "<vmName>" `
           --settings '{\"secretsManagementSettings\": { \"pollingIntervalInS\": \"<pollingInterval>\", \"certificateStoreName\": \"<certStoreName>\", \"certificateStoreLocation\": \"<certStoreLoc>\", \"observedCertificates\": [\" <observedCert1> \", \" <observedCert2> \"] },
           \"authenticationSettings\": { \"msiEndpoint\": \"<msiEndpoint>\", \"msiClientId\": \"<msiClientId>\"}}'
    
    

Troubleshoot and support

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a limit on the number of observedCertificates you can set up?

No, Key Vault VM Extension doesn’t have limit on the number of observedCertificates.

What will be the default permission if no account is provided in settings?

Administrators and SYSTEM will get Full Control by default.

How do you determine if a certificate key is going to be CAPI1 or CNG?

We rely on the default behavior of PFXImportCertStore API. By default, if a certificate has Provider Name attribute that matches with CAPI1, certificate will be imported using CAPI1 certificate, else it will be imported using CNG APIs.

Troubleshoot

Data about the state of extension deployments can be retrieved from the Azure portal, and by using the Azure PowerShell. To see the deployment state of extensions for a given VM, run the following command using the Azure PowerShell.

Azure PowerShell

Get-AzVMExtension -VMName <vmName> -ResourceGroupname <resource group name>

Azure CLI

 az vm get-instance-view --resource-group <resource group name> --name  <vmName> --query "instanceView.extensions"

Logs and configuration

The Key Vault VM extension logs only exist locally on the VM and are most informative when it comes to troubleshooting

Location Description
C:\WindowsAzure\Logs\WaAppAgent.log Shows when an update to the extension occurred.
C:\WindowsAzure\Logs\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault.KeyVaultForWindows\<most recent version>\ Shows the status of certificate download. The download location will always be the Windows computer's MY store (certlm.msc).
C:\Packages\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault.KeyVaultForWindows\<most recent version>\RuntimeSettings\ The Key Vault VM Extension service logs show the status of the akvvm_service service.
C:\Packages\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault.KeyVaultForWindows\<most recent version>\Status\ The configuration and binaries for Key Vault VM Extension service.

Support

If you need more help at any point in this article, you can contact the Azure experts on the MSDN Azure and Stack Overflow forums. Alternatively, you can file an Azure support incident. Go to the Azure support site and select Get support. For information about using Azure Support, read the Microsoft Azure support FAQ.