Quickstart: Create a virtual network using PowerShell

A virtual network lets Azure resources, like virtual machines (VMs), communicate privately with each other, and with the internet.

In this quickstart, you learn how to create a virtual network. After creating a virtual network, you deploy two VMs into the virtual network. You then connect to the VMs from the internet, and communicate privately over the virtual network.

Prerequisites

  • An Azure account with an active subscription. Create an account for free.
  • Azure PowerShell installed locally or Azure Cloud Shell

If you choose to install and use PowerShell locally, this article requires the Azure PowerShell module version 5.4.1 or later. Run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az to find the installed version. If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. If you're running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Connect-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

Create a resource group and a virtual network

There are a handful of steps you have to walk through to get your resource group and virtual network configured.

Create the resource group

Before you can create a virtual network, you have to create a resource group to host the virtual network. Create a resource group with New-AzResourceGroup. This example creates a resource group named CreateVNetQS-rg in the Eastus location:

$rg = @{
    Name = 'CreateVNetQS-rg'
    Location = 'EastUS'
}
New-AzResourceGroup @rg

Create the virtual network

Create a virtual network with New-AzVirtualNetwork. This example creates a default virtual network named myVNet in the EastUS location:

$vnet = @{
    Name = 'myVNet'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreateVNetQS-rg'
    Location = 'EastUS'
    AddressPrefix = '10.0.0.0/16'
}
$virtualNetwork = New-AzVirtualNetwork @vnet

Add a subnet

Azure deploys resources to a subnet within a virtual network, so you need to create a subnet. Create a subnet configuration named default with Add-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig:

$subnet = @{
    Name = 'default'
    VirtualNetwork = $virtualNetwork
    AddressPrefix = '10.0.0.0/24'
}
$subnetConfig = Add-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig @subnet

Associate the subnet to the virtual network

You can write the subnet configuration to the virtual network with Set-AzVirtualNetwork. This command creates the subnet:

$virtualNetwork | Set-AzVirtualNetwork

Create virtual machines

Create two VMs in the virtual network.

Create the first VM

Create the first VM with New-AzVM. When you run the next command, you're prompted for credentials. Enter a user name and password for the VM:

$vm1 = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreateVNetQS-rg'
    Location = 'EastUS'
    Name = 'myVM1'
    VirtualNetworkName = 'myVNet'
    SubnetName = 'default'
}
New-AzVM @vm1 -AsJob

The -AsJob option creates the VM in the background. You can continue to the next step.

When Azure starts creating the VM in the background, you'll get something like this back:

Id     Name            PSJobTypeName   State         HasMoreData     Location             Command
--     ----            -------------   -----         -----------     --------             -------
1      Long Running... AzureLongRun... Running       True            localhost            New-AzVM

Create the second VM

Create the second VM with this command:

$vm2 = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreateVNetQS-rg'
    Location = 'EastUS'
    Name = 'myVM2'
    VirtualNetworkName = 'myVNet'
    SubnetName = 'default'
}
New-AzVM @vm2

You'll have to create another user and password. Azure takes a few minutes to create the VM.

Important

Don't continue with the next step until Azure's finished. You'll know it's done when it returns output to PowerShell.

Note

Azure provides a default outbound access IP for VMs that either aren't assigned a public IP address or are in the back-end pool of an internal basic Azure load balancer. The default outbound access IP mechanism provides an outbound IP address that isn't configurable.

The default outbound access IP is disabled when a public IP address is assigned to the VM, the VM is placed in the back-end pool of a standard load balancer, with or without outbound rules, or if an Azure Virtual Network NAT gateway resource is assigned to the subnet of the VM.

VMs that are created by virtual machine scale sets in flexible orchestration mode don't have default outbound access.

For more information about outbound connections in Azure, see Default outbound access in Azure and Use source network address translation (SNAT) for outbound connections.

Connect to a VM from the internet

To get the public IP address of the VM, use Get-AzPublicIpAddress.

This example returns the public IP address of the myVM1 VM:

$ip = @{
    Name = 'myVM1'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreateVNetQS-rg'
}
Get-AzPublicIpAddress @ip | select IpAddress

Open a command prompt on your local computer. Run the mstsc command. Replace <publicIpAddress> with the public IP address returned from the last step:

Note

If you've been running these commands from a PowerShell prompt on your local computer, and you're using the Az PowerShell module version 1.0 or later, you can continue in that interface.

mstsc /v:<publicIpAddress>
  1. If prompted, select Connect.

  2. Enter the user name and password you specified when creating the VM.

    Note

    You may need to select More choices > Use a different account, to specify the credentials you entered when you created the VM.

  3. Select OK.

  4. You may receive a certificate warning. If you do, select Yes or Continue.

Communicate between VMs

  1. In the Remote Desktop of myVM1, open PowerShell.

  2. Enter ping myVM2.

    You'll get a reply message like this:

    PS C:\Users\myVM1> ping myVM2
    
    Pinging myVM2.ovvzzdcazhbu5iczfvonhg2zrb.bx.internal.cloudapp.net
    Request timed out.
    Request timed out.
    Request timed out.
    Request timed out.
    
    Ping statistics for 10.0.0.5:
        Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),
    

    The ping fails, because it uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). By default, ICMP isn't allowed through your Windows firewall.

  3. To allow myVM2 to ping myVM1 in a later step, enter this command:

    New-NetFirewallRule –DisplayName "Allow ICMPv4-In" –Protocol ICMPv4
    

    That command lets ICMP inbound through the Windows firewall.

  4. Close the remote desktop connection to myVM1.

  5. Repeat the steps in Connect to a VM from the internet. This time, connect to myVM2.

  6. From a command prompt on the myVM2 VM, enter ping myVM1.

    You'll get a reply message like this:

    C:\windows\system32>ping myVM1
    
    Pinging myVM1.e5p2dibbrqtejhq04lqrusvd4g.bx.internal.cloudapp.net [10.0.0.4] with 32 bytes of data:
    Reply from 10.0.0.4: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=128
    Reply from 10.0.0.4: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
    Reply from 10.0.0.4: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
    Reply from 10.0.0.4: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
    
    Ping statistics for 10.0.0.4:
        Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
    Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
        Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms
    

    You receive replies from myVM1, because you allowed ICMP through the Windows firewall on the myVM1 VM in a previous step.

  7. Close the remote desktop connection to myVM2.

Clean up resources

When you're done with the virtual network and the VMs, use Remove-AzResourceGroup to remove the resource group and all the resources it has:

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name 'CreateVNetQS-rg' -Force

Next steps

In this quickstart:

  • You created a default virtual network and two VMs.
  • You connected to one VM from the internet and communicated privately between the two VMs.

Private communication between VMs is unrestricted in a virtual network.

Advance to the next article to learn more about configuring different types of VM network communications: