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_exec, _wexec Functions

Each function in this family loads and executes a new process:

The letter at the end of the function name determines the variation.

_exec function suffix Description
e envp, array of pointers to environment settings, is passed to the new process.
l Command-line arguments are passed individually to _exec function. Typically used when the number of parameters to the new process is known in advance.
p PATH environment variable is used to find the file to execute.
v argv, array of pointers to command-line arguments, is passed to _exec. Typically used when the number of parameters to the new process is variable.


Each _exec function loads and executes a new process. All _exec functions use the same operating-system function (CreateProcess). The _exec functions automatically handle multibyte-character string arguments as appropriate, recognizing multibyte-character sequences according to the multibyte code page currently in use. The _wexec functions are wide-character versions of the _exec functions. The _wexec functions behave identically to their _exec family counterparts except that they don't handle multibyte-character strings.

Generic-text routine mappings

Tchar.h routine _UNICODE and _MBCS not defined _MBCS defined _UNICODE defined
_texecl _execl _execl _wexecl
_texecle _execle _execle _wexecle
_texeclp _execlp _execlp _wexeclp
_texeclpe _execlpe _execlpe _wexeclpe
_texecv _execv _execv _wexecv
_texecve _execve _execve _wexecve
_texecvp _execvp _execvp _wexecvp
_texecvpe _execvpe _execvpe _wexecvpe

The cmdname parameter specifies the file to be executed as the new process. It can specify a full path (from the root), a partial path (from the current working directory), or a file name. If cmdname doesn't have a file name extension or doesn't end with a period (.), the _exec function searches for the named file. If the search is unsuccessful, it tries the same base name with the .com file name extension and then with the .exe, .bat, and .cmd file name extensions. If cmdname has a file name extension, only that extension is used in the search. If cmdname ends with a period, the _exec function searches for cmdname with no file name extension. _execlp, _execlpe, _execvp, and _execvpe search for cmdname (using the same procedures) in the directories specified by the PATH environment variable. If cmdname contains a drive specifier or any slashes (that is, if it's a relative path), the _exec call searches only for the specified file; the path isn't searched.

Parameters are passed to the new process by giving one or more pointers to character strings as parameters in the _exec call. These character strings form the parameter list for the new process. The combined length of the inherited environment settings and the strings forming the parameter list for the new process must not exceed 32 kilobytes. The terminating NULL character (\0) for each string isn't included in the count, but space characters (inserted automatically to separate the parameters) are counted.


Spaces embedded in strings may cause unexpected behavior; for example, passing _exec the string "hi there" will result in the new process getting two arguments, "hi" and "there". If the intent was to have the new process open a file named "hi there", the process would fail. You can avoid this by quoting the string: "\"hi there\"".


Do not pass user input to _exec without explicitly checking its content. _exec will result in a call to CreateProcess so keep in mind that unqualified path names could lead to potential security vulnerabilities.

The _exec functions validate their parameters. If expected parameters are null pointers, empty strings, or omitted, the _exec functions invoke the invalid parameter handler as described in Parameter validation. If execution is allowed to continue, these functions set errno to EINVAL and return -1. No new process is executed.

The argument pointers can be passed as separate parameters (in _execl, _execle, _execlp, and _execlpe) or as an array of pointers (in _execv, _execve, _execvp, and _execvpe). At least one parameter, arg0, must be passed to the new process; this parameter is argv[0] of the new process. Usually, this parameter is a copy of cmdname. (A different value doesn't produce an error.)

The _execl, _execle, _execlp, and _execlpe calls are typically used when the number of parameters is known in advance. The parameter arg0 is usually a pointer to cmdname. The parameters arg1 through argn point to the character strings forming the new parameter list. A null pointer must follow argn to mark the end of the parameter list.

The _execv, _execve, _execvp, and _execvpe calls are useful when the number of parameters to the new process is variable. Pointers to the parameters are passed as an array, argv. The parameter argv[0] is usually a pointer to cmdname. The parameters argv[1] through argv[n] point to the character strings forming the new parameter list. The parameter argv[n+1] must be a NULL pointer to mark the end of the parameter list.

Files that are open when an _exec call is made remain open in the new process. In _execl, _execlp, _execv, and _execvp calls, the new process inherits the environment of the calling process. _execle, _execlpe, _execve, and _execvpe calls alter the environment for the new process by passing a list of environment settings through the envp parameter. envp is an array of character pointers, each element of which (except for the final element) points to a null-terminated string defining an environment variable. Such a string usually has the form NAME=value where NAME is the name of an environment variable and value is the string value to which that variable is set. (The value isn't enclosed in double quotation marks.) The final element of the envp array should be NULL. When envp itself is NULL, the new process inherits the environment settings of the calling process.

A program executed with one of the _exec functions is always loaded into memory as if the maximum allocation field in the program's .exe file header were set to the default value of 0xFFFFH.

The _exec calls don't preserve the translation modes of open files. If the new process must use files inherited from the calling process, use the _setmode routine to set the translation mode of these files to the desired mode. You must explicitly flush (using fflush or _flushall) or close any stream before the _exec function call. Signal settings aren't preserved in new processes that are created by calls to _exec routines. The signal settings are reset to the default in the new process.


// crt_args.c
// Illustrates the following variables used for accessing
// command-line arguments and environment variables:
// argc  argv  envp
// This program will be executed by crt_exec which follows.

#include <stdio.h>

int main( int argc,  // Number of strings in array argv
char *argv[],       // Array of command-line argument strings
char **envp )       // Array of environment variable strings
    int count;

    // Display each command-line argument.
    printf( "\nCommand-line arguments:\n" );
    for( count = 0; count < argc; count++ )
        printf( "  argv[%d]   %s\n", count, argv[count] );

    // Display each environment variable.
    printf( "\nEnvironment variables:\n" );
    while( *envp != NULL )
        printf( "  %s\n", *(envp++) );


Run the following program to execute Crt_args.exe:

// crt_exec.c
// Illustrates the different versions of exec, including
//      _execl          _execle          _execlp          _execlpe
//      _execv          _execve          _execvp          _execvpe
// Although CRT_EXEC.C can exec any program, you can verify how
// different versions handle arguments and environment by
// compiling and specifying the sample program CRT_ARGS.C. See
// "_spawn, _wspawn Functions" for examples of the similar spawn
// functions.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <process.h>

char *my_env[] =     // Environment for exec?e
   "THIS=environment will be",
   "PASSED=to new process by",
   "the EXEC=functions",

int main( int ac, char* av[] )
   char *args[4];
   int ch;
   if( ac != 3 ){
      fprintf( stderr, "Usage: %s <program> <number (1-8)>\n", av[0] );

   // Arguments for _execv?
   args[0] = av[1];
   args[1] = "exec??";
   args[2] = "two";
   args[3] = NULL;

   switch( atoi( av[2] ) )
   case 1:
      _execl( av[1], av[1], "_execl", "two", NULL );
   case 2:
      _execle( av[1], av[1], "_execle", "two", NULL, my_env );
   case 3:
      _execlp( av[1], av[1], "_execlp", "two", NULL );
   case 4:
      _execlpe( av[1], av[1], "_execlpe", "two", NULL, my_env );
   case 5:
      _execv( av[1], args );
   case 6:
      _execve( av[1], args, my_env );
   case 7:
      _execvp( av[1], args );
   case 8:
      _execvpe( av[1], args, my_env );

   // This point is reached only if exec fails.
   printf( "\nProcess was not execed." );
   exit( 0 );


Header: process.h

See also

Process and environment control
exit, _Exit, _exit
_onexit, _onexit_m
_spawn, _wspawn functions
system, _wsystem