Operator overloading  predefined unary, arithmetic, equality and comparison operators
A userdefined type can overload a predefined C# operator. That is, a type can provide the custom implementation of an operation in case one or both of the operands are of that type. The Overloadable operators section shows which C# operators can be overloaded.
Use the operator
keyword to declare an operator. An operator declaration must satisfy the following rules:
 It includes both a
public
and astatic
modifier.  A unary operator has one input parameter. A binary operator has two input parameters. In each case, at least one parameter must have type
T
orT?
whereT
is the type that contains the operator declaration.
The following example defines a simplified structure to represent a rational number. The structure overloads some of the arithmetic operators:
public readonly struct Fraction
{
private readonly int num;
private readonly int den;
public Fraction(int numerator, int denominator)
{
if (denominator == 0)
{
throw new ArgumentException("Denominator cannot be zero.", nameof(denominator));
}
num = numerator;
den = denominator;
}
public static Fraction operator +(Fraction a) => a;
public static Fraction operator (Fraction a) => new Fraction(a.num, a.den);
public static Fraction operator +(Fraction a, Fraction b)
=> new Fraction(a.num * b.den + b.num * a.den, a.den * b.den);
public static Fraction operator (Fraction a, Fraction b)
=> a + (b);
public static Fraction operator *(Fraction a, Fraction b)
=> new Fraction(a.num * b.num, a.den * b.den);
public static Fraction operator /(Fraction a, Fraction b)
{
if (b.num == 0)
{
throw new DivideByZeroException();
}
return new Fraction(a.num * b.den, a.den * b.num);
}
public override string ToString() => $"{num} / {den}";
}
public static class OperatorOverloading
{
public static void Main()
{
var a = new Fraction(5, 4);
var b = new Fraction(1, 2);
Console.WriteLine(a); // output: 5 / 4
Console.WriteLine(a + b); // output: 14 / 8
Console.WriteLine(a  b); // output: 6 / 8
Console.WriteLine(a * b); // output: 5 / 8
Console.WriteLine(a / b); // output: 10 / 4
}
}
You could extend the preceding example by defining an implicit conversion from int
to Fraction
. Then, overloaded operators would support arguments of those two types. That is, it would become possible to add an integer to a fraction and obtain a fraction as a result.
You also use the operator
keyword to define a custom type conversion. For more information, see Userdefined conversion operators.
Overloadable operators
The following table shows the operators that can be overloaded:
Operators  Notes 

+x , x , !x , ~x , ++ ,  , true , false 
The true and false operators must be overloaded together. 
x + y , x  y , x * y , x / y , x % y , x & y , x  y , x ^ y , x << y , x >> y , x >>> y 

x == y , x != y , x < y , x > y , x <= y , x >= y 
Must be overloaded in pairs as follows: == and != , < and > , <= and >= . 
Non overloadable operators
The following table shows the operators that can't be overloaded:
Operators  Alternatives 

x && y , x  y 
Overload both the true and false operators and the & or  operators. For more information, see Userdefined conditional logical operators. 
a[i] , a?[i] 
Define an indexer. 
(T)x 
Define custom type conversions that can be performed by a cast expression. For more information, see Userdefined conversion operators. 
+= , = , *= , /= , %= , &= , = , ^= , <<= , >>= , >>>= 
Overload the corresponding binary operator. For example, when you overload the binary + operator, += is implicitly overloaded. 
^x , x = y , x.y , x?.y , c ? t : f , x ?? y , ??= y ,x..y , x>y , => , f(x) , as , await , checked , unchecked , default , delegate , is , nameof , new , sizeof , stackalloc , switch , typeof , with 
None. 
C# language specification
For more information, see the following sections of the C# language specification:
See also
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