Declaration statements

A declaration statement declares a new variable, and optionally, initializes it. All variables have declared type. You can learn more about types in the article on the .NET type system. Typically, a declaration includes a type and a variable name. It can also include an initialization: the = operator followed by an expression. The type may be replaced with var. The declaration or the expression may include the ref modifier to declare that the new variable refers to an existing storage location.

Implicitly typed local variables

Variables that are declared at method scope can have an implicit "type" var. An implicitly typed local variable is strongly typed as if you had declared the type yourself, but the compiler determines the type. The following two declarations of a and b are functionally equivalent:

var a = 10; // Implicitly typed.
int b = 10; // Explicitly typed.


When var is used with nullable reference types enabled, it always implies a nullable reference type even if the expression type isn't nullable. The compiler's null state analysis protects against dereferencing a potential null value. If the variable is never assigned to an expression that maybe null, the compiler won't emit any warnings. If you assign the variable to an expression that might be null, you must test that it isn't null before dereferencing it to avoid any warnings.

A common use of the var keyword is with constructor invocation expressions. The use of var allows you to not repeat a type name in a variable declaration and object instantiation, as the following example shows:

var xs = new List<int>();

Beginning with C# 9.0, you can use a target-typed new expression as an alternative:

List<int> xs = new();
List<int>? ys = new();

In pattern matching, the var keyword is used in a var pattern.

The following example shows two query expressions. In the first expression, the use of var is permitted but isn't required, because the type of the query result can be stated explicitly as an IEnumerable<string>. However, in the second expression, var allows the result to be a collection of anonymous types, and the name of that type isn't accessible except to the compiler itself. Use of var eliminates the requirement to create a new class for the result. In Example #2, the foreach iteration variable item must also be implicitly typed.

// Example #1: var is optional when
// the select clause specifies a string
string[] words = { "apple", "strawberry", "grape", "peach", "banana" };
var wordQuery = from word in words
                where word[0] == 'g'
                select word;

// Because each element in the sequence is a string,
// not an anonymous type, var is optional here also.
foreach (string s in wordQuery)

// Example #2: var is required because
// the select clause specifies an anonymous type
var custQuery = from cust in customers
                where cust.City == "Phoenix"
                select new { cust.Name, cust.Phone };

// var must be used because each item
// in the sequence is an anonymous type
foreach (var item in custQuery)
    Console.WriteLine("Name={0}, Phone={1}", item.Name, item.Phone);

Ref locals

You add the ref keyword before the type of a variable to declare a ref local. Assume the GetContactInformation method is declared as a ref return:

public ref Person GetContactInformation(string fname, string lname)

A by-value assignment reads the value of a variable and assigns it to a new variable:

Person p = contacts.GetContactInformation("Brandie", "Best");

The preceding assignment declares p as a local variable. Its initial value is copied from reading the value returned by GetContactInformation. Any future assignments to p won't change the value of the variable returned by GetContactInformation. The variable p is no longer an alias to the variable returned.

You declare a ref variable to copy the alias to the original value. In the following assignment, p is an alias to the variable returned from GetContactInformation.

ref Person p = ref contacts.GetContactInformation("Brandie", "Best");

Subsequent usage of p is the same as using the variable returned by GetContactInformation because p is an alias for that variable. Changes to p also change the variable returned from GetContactInformation.

You can access a value by reference in the same way. In some cases, accessing a value by reference increases performance by avoiding a potentially expensive copy operation. For example, the following statement shows how one can define a ref local value that is used to reference a value.

ref VeryLargeStruct reflocal = ref veryLargeStruct;

The ref keyword is used both before the local variable declaration and before the value in the second example. Failure to include both ref keywords in the variable declaration and assignment in both examples results in compiler error CS8172, "Can't initialize a by-reference variable with a value."

ref VeryLargeStruct reflocal = ref veryLargeStruct; // initialization
refLocal = ref anotherVeryLargeStruct; // reassigned, refLocal refers to different storage.

Ref local variables must still be initialized when they're declared.

The following example defines a NumberStore class that stores an array of integer values. The FindNumber method returns by reference the first number that is greater than or equal to the number passed as an argument. If no number is greater than or equal to the argument, the method returns the number in index 0.

using System;

class NumberStore
    int[] numbers = { 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, 1023 };

    public ref int FindNumber(int target)
        for (int ctr = 0; ctr < numbers.Length; ctr++)
            if (numbers[ctr] >= target)
                return ref numbers[ctr];
        return ref numbers[0];

    public override string ToString() => string.Join(" ", numbers);

The following example calls the NumberStore.FindNumber method to retrieve the first value that is greater than or equal to 16. The caller then doubles the value returned by the method. The output from the example shows the change reflected in the value of the array elements of the NumberStore instance.

var store = new NumberStore();
Console.WriteLine($"Original sequence: {store.ToString()}");
int number = 16;
ref var value = ref store.FindNumber(number);
value *= 2;
Console.WriteLine($"New sequence:      {store.ToString()}");
// The example displays the following output:
//       Original sequence: 1 3 7 15 31 63 127 255 511 1023
//       New sequence:      1 3 7 15 62 63 127 255 511 1023

Without support for reference return values, such an operation is performed by returning the index of the array element along with its value. The caller can then use this index to modify the value in a separate method call. However, the caller can also modify the index to access and possibly modify other array values.

The following example shows how the FindNumber method could be rewritten to use ref local reassignment:

using System;

class NumberStore
    int[] numbers = { 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, 1023 };

    public ref int FindNumber(int target)
        ref int returnVal = ref numbers[0];
        var ctr = numbers.Length - 1;
        while ((ctr >= 0) && (numbers[ctr] >= target))
            returnVal = ref numbers[ctr];
        return ref returnVal;

    public override string ToString() => string.Join(" ", numbers);

This second version is more efficient with longer sequences in scenarios where the number sought is closer to the end of the array, as the array is iterated from end towards the beginning, causing fewer items to be examined.

The compiler enforces scope rules on ref variables: ref locals, ref parameters, and ref fields in ref struct types. The rules ensure that a reference doesn't outlive the object to which it refers. See the section on scoping rules in the article on method parameters.

ref and readonly

The readonly modifier can be applied to ref local variables and ref fields. The readonly modifier affects the expression to its right. See the following example declarations:

ref readonly int aConstant; // aConstant can't be value-reassigned.
readonly ref int Storage; // Storage can't be ref-reassigned.
readonly ref readonly int CantChange; // CantChange can't be value-reassigned or ref-reassigned.
  • value reassignment means the value of the variable is reassigned.
  • ref assignment means the variable now refers to a different object.

The readonly ref and readonly ref readonly declarations are valid only on ref fields in a ref struct.

scoped ref

The contextual keyword scoped restricts the lifetime of a value. The scoped modifier restricts the ref-safe-to-escape or safe-to-escape lifetime, respectively, to the current method. Effectively, adding the scoped modifier asserts that your code won't extend the lifetime of the variable.

You can apply scoped to a parameter or local variable. The scoped modifier may be applied to parameters and locals when the type is a ref struct. Otherwise, the scoped modifier may be applied only to local variables that are ref types. That includes local variables declared with the ref modifier and parameters declared with the in, ref or out modifiers.

The scoped modifier is implicitly added to this in methods declared in a struct, out parameters, and ref parameters when the type is a ref struct.

See also