1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

access control entry (ACE): An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of user rights and a security identifier (SID) that identifies a principal for whom the rights are allowed, denied, or audited.

access control list (ACL): A list of access control entries (ACEs) that collectively describe the security rules for authorizing access to some resource; for example, an object or set of objects.

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

attestation: A process of establishing some property of a computer platform or of a trusted platform module (TPM) key, in part through TPM cryptographic operations.

attribute: A characteristic of some object or entity, typically encoded as a name/value pair.

CA policy algorithm: An algorithm that determines whether to issue a certificate for a specified certificate request and defines how that certificate is constructed.

CA policy module: The Microsoft CA implements policy algorithms with policy modules. The policy module can be configured as described in [MSFT-MODULES]. It can also be replaced as described in [MSDN-ICERTPOLICY2].

certificate: A certificate is a collection of attributes and extensions that can be stored persistently. The set of attributes in a certificate can vary depending on the intended usage of the certificate. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. A certificate is commonly used for authentication and secure exchange of information on open networks, such as the Internet, extranets, and intranets. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing certification authority (CA) and can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service. The most widely accepted format for certificates is defined by the ITU-T X.509 version 3 international standards. For more information about attributes and extensions, see [RFC3280] and [X509] sections 7 and 8.

certificate authority (CA) roles: A list of administrator-defined rights or access control lists (ACLs) that define the capability of a particular principal on a certificate authority (CA). CA Roles are specified in [CIMC-PP] section 5.2, and include administrator, operator, officer, and auditor.

certificate enrollment: The process of acquiring a digital certificate from a certificate authority (CA), which typically requires an end entity to first makes itself known to the CA (either directly, or through a registration authority). This certificate and its associated private key establish a trusted identity for an entity that is using the public key–based services and applications. Also referred to as simply "enrollment".

certificate issuance: The granting of a digital certificate to an end entity by a certificate authority (CA) as part of the certification process. Sometimes referred to as simply "issuance".

certificate revocation: The process of invalidating a certificate. For more information, see [RFC3280] section 3.3.

certificate revocation list (CRL): A list of certificates that have been revoked by the certification authority (CA) that issued them (that have not yet expired of their own accord). The list must be cryptographically signed by the CA that issues it. Typically, the certificates are identified by serial number. In addition to the serial number for the revoked certificates, the CRL contains the revocation reason for each certificate and the time the certificate was revoked. As described in [RFC3280], two types of CRLs commonly exist in the industry. Base CRLs keep a complete list of revoked certificates, while delta CRLs maintain only those certificates that have been revoked since the last issuance of a base CRL. For more information, see [X509] section 7.3, [MSFT-CRL], and [RFC3280] section 5.

certificate services: The Microsoft implementation of a certification authority (CA) that is part of the server operating system. Certificate services include tools to manage issued certificates, publish CA certificates and CRLs, configure CAs, import and export certificates and keys, and recover archived private keys.

certificate template: A list of attributes that define a blueprint for creating an X.509 certificate. It is often referred to in non-Microsoft documentation as a "certificate profile". A certificate template is used to define the content and purpose of a digital certificate, including issuance requirements (certificate policies), implemented X.509 extensions such as application policies, key usage, or extended key usage as specified in [X509], and enrollment permissions. Enrollment permissions define the rules by which a certification authority (CA) will issue or deny certificate requests. In Windows environments, certificate templates are stored as objects in the Active Directory and used by Microsoft enterprise CAs.

certification authority (CA): A third party that issues public key certificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

client: A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) client is executing.

common name (CN): A string attribute of a certificate that is one component of a distinguished name (DN). In Microsoft Enterprise uses, a CN must be unique within the forest where it is defined and any forests that share trust with the defining forest. The website or email address of the certificate owner is often used as a common name. Client applications often refer to a certification authority (CA) by the CN of its signing certificate.

container: An object in the directory that can serve as the parent for other objects. In the absence of schema constraints, all objects would be containers. The schema allows only objects of specific classes to be containers.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (CAPI) or CryptoAPI: The Microsoft cryptographic application programming interface (API). An API that enables application developers to add authentication, encoding, and encryption to Windows-based applications.

cryptographic service provider (CSP): A software module that implements cryptographic functions for calling applications that generates digital signatures. Multiple CSPs may be installed. A CSP is identified by a name represented by a NULL-terminated Unicode string.

Cryptography API: Next Generation (CNG): The second generation of the CryptoAPI and its long-term replacement. CNG allows the implementer to replace existing algorithm providers with the implementer's own providers and to add new algorithms as they become available. CNG also allows the same APIs to be used from user and kernel mode applications.

directory service (DS): An entity that maintains a collection of objects. These objects can be remotely manipulated either by the Message Queuing (MSMQ): Directory Service Protocol, as specified in [MS-MQDS], or by the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3), as specified in [RFC2251].

discretionary access control list (DACL): An access control list (ACL) that is controlled by the owner of an object and that specifies the access particular users or groups can have to the object.

distinguished name (DN): In Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), an LDAP Distinguished Name, as described in [RFC2251] section 4.1.3. The DN of an object is the DN of its parent, preceded by the RDN of the object. For example: CN=David Thompson, OU=Users, DC=Microsoft, DC=COM. For definitions of CN and OU, see [RFC2256] sections 5.4 and 5.12, respectively.

Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM): The Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) specification that defines how components communicate over networks, as specified in [MS-DCOM].

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS].

domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DS DC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS]. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDS DCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DS DC can run on one server. However, several AD LDS DCs can coexist with one AD DS DC on one server. The AD LDS DC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest. The domain controller is the server side of Authentication Protocol Domain Support [MS-APDS].

encryption: In cryptography, the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge.

Enrollment Agent rights: A list of administrator-defined rights or ACLs that define the capability of a particular principal to obtain a certificate, with subject information pertaining to a different principal, from a CA. Enrollment Agent is not one of the roles defined in [CIMC-PP].

enterprise certificate authority (enterprise CA): A certificate authority (CA) that is a member of a domain and that uses the domain's Active Directory service to store policy, authentication, and other information related to the operation of the CA. Specifically, the enterprise CA is a server implementation of the Windows Client Certificate Enrollment Protocol that uses the certificate template data structure (see [MS-CRTD]) in its CA policy algorithm implementation.

exchange certificate: A certificate that can be used for encryption purposes. This certificate can be used by clients to encrypt their private keys as part of their certificate request. In Windows environments, an enterprise certificate authority (CA) creates an exchange certificate periodically (by default, weekly), and returns the exchange certificate upon request of a client. For more information, see [MSFT-ARCHIVE].

execution context: A context that is established when a process or thread is started. Execution context establishes the identity against which permissions to execute statements or perform actions are checked and is represented by a pair of security tokens: a primary token and an impersonation token.

forest: In the Active Directory directory service, a forest is a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema NC, one config NC, and one or more domain NCs. Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set of one or several trees of NCs.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN): An unambiguous domain name that gives an absolute location in the Domain Name System's (DNS) hierarchy tree, as defined in [RFC1035] section 3.1 and [RFC2181] section 11.

hardware certificate: An X.509 certificate that could be an endorsement certificate or an attestation identity key certificate.

hardware key: An asymmetric key pair that could be an endorsement key or an attestation identity key.

index: A data structure that is used to quickly locate data in a table. For more information, see [GRAY].

key: In cryptography, a generic term used to refer to cryptographic data that is used to initialize a cryptographic algorithm. Keys are also sometimes referred to as keying material.

key archival: The process by which the entity requesting the certificate also submits the private key during the process. The private key is encrypted such that only a key recovery agent can obtain it, preventing accidental disclosure, but preserving a copy in case the entity is unable or unwilling to decrypt data.

Key Distribution Center (KDC): The Kerberos service that implements the authentication and ticket granting services specified in the Kerberos protocol. The service runs on computers selected by the administrator of the realm or domain; it is not present on every machine on the network. It must have access to an account database for the realm that it serves. KDCs are integrated into the domain controller role. It is a network service that supplies tickets to clients for use in authenticating to services.

key recovery agent (KRA): A user, machine, or registration authority that has enrolled and obtained a key recovery certificate. A KRA is any entity that possesses a KRA private key and certificate. For more information on KRAs and the archival process, see [MSFT-ARCHIVE].

key recovery certificate: A certificate with the unique object identifier (OID) in the extended key usage extension for key archival. Also known as key archival certificate.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

log files: The server can keep a log of data value and structure changes in a database. The log is stored in stable storage and is used by the database to restore the last committed values of data items (for more information, see [GRAY]). A representation of the history of Windows behavior: Windows Server 2003 operating system stores request submissions and certificate revocations that have occurred since the last log file truncation or backup. Log file volume increases as database activity occurs. The log files can be decreased in size by performing a backup and then calling BackupTruncateLogs as specified in section

object: In Active Directory, an entity consisting of a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS]. See also directory object.

object identifier (OID): (1) In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute. Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, ""). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and [RFC3280] Appendix A. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certification authority (CA). Within a certificate, OIDs are used to identify standard extensions, as described in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

(2) In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a sequence of numbers in a format described by [RFC1778]. In many LDAP directory implementations, an OID is the standard internal representation of an attribute. In the directory model used in this specification, the more familiar ldapDisplayName represents an attribute.

object remote procedure call (ORPC): A remote procedure call whose target is an interface on an object. The target interface (and therefore the object) is identified by an interface pointer identifier (IPID).

Officer rights: A list of administrator-defined rights or access control lists (ACLs) that define the capability of a specified officer (one of the roles specified in [CIMC-PP]) to approve the certificate requests that are associated with a specific set of principals. Officer rights, as specified in [CIMC-PP], are locally configured and stored on a CA and enforced by the CA.

principal: A unique entity identifiable by a security identifier (SID) that is typically the requester of access to securable objects or resources. It often corresponds to a human user but can also be a computer or service. It is sometimes referred to as a security principal.

private key: One of a pair of keys used in public-key cryptography. The private key is kept secret and is used to decrypt data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key. For an introduction to this concept, see [CRYPTO] section 1.8 and [IEEE1363] section 3.1.

public key: One of a pair of keys used in public-key cryptography. The public key is distributed freely and published as part of a digital certificate. For an introduction to this concept, see [CRYPTO] section 1.8 and [IEEE1363] section 3.1.

public key infrastructure (PKI): The laws, policies, standards, and software that regulate or manipulate certificates and public and private keys. In practice, it is a system of digital certificates, certificate authorities (CAs), and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an electronic transaction. For more information, see [X509] section 6.

release from hold: To change the status of a certificate with Request.Disposition "certificate revoked" and Request.Revoked.Reason "certificateHold" to Request.Disposition "certificate issued", using the RevokeCertificate method. As detailed in this document in the server processing rules for the RevokeCertificate method, only a certificate with Request.Disposition set to "certificate revoked" and Request.Revoked.Reason set to "certificateHold" can be released from hold.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

revocation: The process of invalidating a certificate. For more details, see [RFC3280] section 3.3.

role separation: The concept of using a certificate authority (CA) to enhance security by allowing a user to be assigned a single role such as auditor, backup manager, administrator, or certificate manager. Role separation ensures that a user does not possess multiple roles at one time. Role separation is a common criteria requirement for the Certificate Issuing and Management Components (CIMC) protection profile. For more information, see [CIMC-PP]. Not all CAs support role separation.

root CA: A type of certificate authority (CA) that is directly trusted by an end entity, including a relying party; that is, securely acquiring the value of a root CA public key requires some out-of-band steps. This term is not meant to imply that a root CA is necessarily at the top of any hierarchy, simply that the CA in question is trusted directly (as specified in [RFC2510]). A root CA is implemented in software and in Windows, is the topmost CA in a CA hierarchy, and is the trust point for all certificates that are issued by the CAs in the CA hierarchy. If a user, computer, or service trusts a root CA, it implicitly trusts all certificates that are issued by all other CAs in the CA hierarchy. For more information, see [RFC3280].

sanitized name: The form of a certification authority (CA) name that is used in file names (such as for a certificate revocation list (CRL); see [MSFT-CRL] for more information) and in other contexts where character sets are restricted. The process of sanitizing the CA name is necessary to remove characters that are illegal for file names, registry key names, or distinguished name (DN) values, or that are illegal for technology-specific reasons.

schema: The set of attributes and object classes that govern the creation and update of objects.

SHA-1 hash: A hashing algorithm as specified in [FIPS180-2] that was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Security Agency (NSA).

SHA-2 hash: A hashing algorithm specified in [FIPS180-4] that was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Security Agency (NSA).

signing certificates: The certificate that represents the identity of an entity (for example, a certification authority (CA), a web server or an S/MIME mail author) and is used to verify signatures made by the private key of that entity. For more information, see [RFC3280].

social engineering: The class of attacks in which the attacker uses human-to-human interactions to improperly gain user rights.

standalone CA: A certification authority (CA) that is not a member of a domain. For more information, see [MSFT-PKI].

subordinate CA: A type of CA that is not a root CA for a relying party (RP) or for a client. A subordinate CA is a CA whose certificate is signed by some other CA, as specified in [RFC2510].

symmetric encryption: An encryption method that uses the same cryptographic key to encrypt and decrypt a given message.

table: A set of data elements that is organized into a predefined format of rows and columns. For more information, see [GRAY].

trusted platform module (TPM): A component of a trusted computing platform. The TPM stores keys, passwords, and digital certificates. See [TCG-Architect] for more information.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

universally unique identifier (UUID): A 128-bit value. UUIDs can be used for multiple purposes, from tagging objects with an extremely short lifetime, to reliably identifying very persistent objects in cross-process communication such as client and server interfaces, manager entry-point vectors, and RPC objects. UUIDs are highly likely to be unique. UUIDs are also known as globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) and these terms are used interchangeably in the Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the UUID. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the UUID.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.