20 R

RADIUS client: A client that is responsible for passing user information to designated RADIUS servers, and then acting on the response that is returned.

RADIUS server: A server that is responsible for receiving user connection requests, authenticating the user, and then returning all configuration information necessary for the client to deliver service to the user. A RADIUS server can act as a proxy client to other RADIUS servers or other kinds of authentication servers.

read receipt: An email message that is sent to the sender of a message to indicate that a message recipient received the message.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS): An XML-based syndication format for content, as described in [RSS2.0].

realm: (1) An administrative boundary that uses one set of authentication servers to manage and deploy a single set of unique identifiers. A realm is a unique logon space.

(2) A collection of key distribution centers (KDCs) with a common set of principals, as described in [RFC4120] section 1.2.

(3) A collection of users, partners, and authentication servers bound by a common authentication policy.

realm autodiscovery: A process used by client applications to obtain the name of a server resource's source realm (1) and then use that information to locate a security token service (STS) that can issue access tokens to the resource.

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP): A network transport protocol that provides end-to-end transport functions that are suitable for applications that transmit real-time data, such as audio and video, as described in [RFC3550].

Receive folder: A Folder object that is configured to be the destination for email messages that are delivered.

recipient: (1) An entity that can receive email messages.

(2) An entity that is in an address list, can receive email messages, and contains a set of attributes (1). Each attribute has a set of associated values.

(3) The recipient of a fax message.

recipient flag: A collection of property values indicating that a draft Message object is marked such that it will appear as flagged with a basic flag to recipients.

recipient information cache: An information store that contains a list of the contacts (3) with whom a user has interacted most often and most recently, and with whom the user is likely to interact again.

Recipient object: A set of properties that represent the recipient of a Message object.

recipient reminder: A collection of property values indicating that a Draft Message object is marked such that it will have an active reminder for the recipients of the Message Object.

recipient table: The part of a Message object that represents users to whom a message is addressed. Each row of the table is a set of properties that represents one recipient (2).

record: (1) A group of related fields (3), which are sometimes referred to as columns, of information that are treated as a unit. Also referred to as row.

(2) The fundamental unit of information in the .NET Binary Format: XML Data Structure encoded as a variable length series of bytes. [MC-NBFX] section 2 specifies the format for each type of record.

(3) A variable-length sequence of bytes with a predefined structure.

(4) A sequence of octets.

(5) The data structure that contains an event that is currently represented in an event log.

(6) A piece of data that is published by a node to the graph. Records are the primary mechanism of communication in a graph.

recurrence BLOB: The binary large object (BLOB) encoding of a recurrence pattern, a recurrence range, and recurrence exceptions.

recurrence part: A name/value pair in a property of type Recurrence Rule, as described in [RFC2445].

recurrence pattern: Information for a repeating event, such as the start and end time, the number of occurrences, and how occurrences are spaced, such as daily, weekly, or monthly.

Recurring Calendar object: A Calendar object that describes an event that repeats according to a recurrence pattern.

recurring series: An event that repeats at specific intervals of time according to a recurrence pattern.

recurring task: A series of Task objects that are described by a recurrence pattern.

Recurring Task object: A Task object that represents a recurring task.

Recycle Bin: (1) The location where deleted files are stored until they are either restored, if they were deleted erroneously, or destroyed permanently.

(2) An optional feature that modifies the state model of object deletions and undeletions, making undeletion of deleted-objects possible without loss of the object's attribute values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS] section

recycled-object: An object that has been deleted, but remains in storage until a configured amount of time (the tombstone lifetime) has passed, after which the object is permanently removed from storage. Unlike a deleted-object, most of the state of the object has been removed, and the object may no longer be undeleted without loss of information. By keeping the recycled-object in existence for the tombstone lifetime, the deleted state of the object is able to replicate. Recycled-objects exist only when the Recycle Binoptional feature is enabled.

registry: A local system-defined database in which applications and system components store and retrieve configuration data. It is a hierarchical data store with lightly typed elements that are logically stored in tree format. Applications use the registry API to retrieve, modify, or delete registry data. The data stored in the registry varies according to the version of Windows.

relative distinguished name (RDN): (1) An attribute-value pair used in the distinguished name of an object. For more information, see [RFC2251].

(2) In the Active Directory directory service, the unique name of a child element relative to its parent in Active Directory. The RDN of a child element combined with the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) (2) of the parent forms the FQDN of the child.

(3) The name of an object relative to its parent. This is the leftmost attribute-value pair in the distinguished name (DN) of an object. For example, in the DN "cn=Peter Houston, ou=NTDEV, dc=microsoft, dc=com", the RDN is "cn=Peter Houston". For more information, see [RFC2251].

(4) In the Active Directory directory service, the unique name of a child element relative to its parent in Active Directory. The RDN of a child element combined with the fully qualified distinguished name (FQDN) of the parent forms the FQDN of the child.

(5) As specified in [X500], the portion of a distinguished name that is unique to an organization unit but might not be unique inside a domain.

relative identifier (RID): The last item in the series of SubAuthority values in a SID (as specified in [SIDD]). It distinguishes one account or group from all other accounts and groups in the domain. No two accounts or groups in any domain share the same relative identifier.

reliable messaging destination (RMD): An endpoint that receives a message. For more information, see [WSRM1-0], [WSRM1-1], and [WSRM1-2].

reliable messaging source (RMS): An endpoint that sends a message. For more information, see [WSRM1-0], [WSRM1-1], and [WSRM1-2].

relying party (RP): (1) The entity (person or computer) using information from a certificate in order to make a security decision. Typically, the RP is responsible for guarding some resource and applying access control policies based on information learned from a certificate.

(2) A web application or service that consumes security tokens issued by an security token service (STS).

reminder: A generally user-visible notification that a specified time has been reached. A reminder is most commonly related to the beginning of a meeting or the due time of a task but it can be applied to any object type.

reminder domain: A set of folders that are searched for objects that have an active reminder.

reminder properties: A set of properties that specify the attributes of a reminder. These attributes include the time at which and the method by which a reminder is signaled or displayed.

reminder queue: A sorted list of objects that are in a reminder domain and have been stamped with properties implying that they could have an active reminder.

Remote Administration Protocol (RAP): A synchronous request/response protocol, used prior to the development of the remote procedure call (RPC) protocol, for marshaling and unmarshaling procedure call input and output arguments into messages and for reliably transporting messages to and from clients and servers.

remote application: An application running on a remote server.

Remote Assistance (RA): A feature of the operating system that allows screen, keyboard, and mouse sharing so that a computer user can be assisted by a remote helper.

Remote Assistance connection: A communication framework that is established between two computers that facilitates Remote Assistance.

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS): A protocol for carrying authentication, authorization, and configuration information between a network access server (NAS) that prefers to authenticate connection requests from endpoints and a shared server that performs authentication, authorization, and accounting.

remote differential compression (RDC): Any of a class of compression algorithms that are designed to compare two files residing on different machines without requiring one of the files to be transmitted in its entirety to the other machine. For more information, see [MS-RDC].

Remote Method: Part of the Remoting Data Model. A Remote Method is a remotely callable operation. A Remote Method can either be One-Way or Two-Way. In the case of a One-Way Method, there is no reply from the implementation. For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1

remote operation (ROP): An operation that is invoked against a server. Each ROP represents an action, such as delete, send, or query. A ROP is contained in a ROP buffer for transmission over the wire.

remote procedure call (RPC): A context-dependent term commonly overloaded with three meanings. Note that much of the industry literature concerning RPC technologies uses this term interchangeably for any of the three meanings. Following are the three definitions: The runtime environment providing remote procedure call facilities. The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC runtime". The pattern of request and response message exchange between two parties (typically, a client and a server). The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC exchange". A single message from an exchange as defined in the previous definition. The preferred usage for this term is "RPC message". For more information, see [C706].

remote user: (1) A user who has a persistent identity within an enterprise and is connected from outside the enterprise network boundary.

(2) An Address Book object known to be from a foreign or remote messaging system.

Remoting Data Model: A model that is used to represent higher-layer–defined data structures and values, and to represent a Remote Method invocation and the Return Value or error information from that invocation. A protocol, such as [MS-NRLS], that is built on top of this protocol can be defined by using the Remoting Data Model, and can be agnostic to the serialization format. For more information, see Abstract Data Model (section 3.1.1).

Remoting Type: Part of the Remoting Data Model. Class, Array, Enum, and Primitive are different kinds of Remoting Types. All Remoting Types are identified by a name that is case sensitive. For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1

rendering position: A location in a Rich Text Format (RTF) document where an attachment is placed visually.

replica: (1) A server that hosts an instance of a message item in a folder.

(2) A copy of the data that is in a user's mailbox at a specific point in time.

(3) A variable containing a set of objects.

(4) A particular repository of file and directory information to be synchronized, and the metadata store that represents that repository.

(5) NBNS database name records (name-to-IPv4 address mapping) replicated from other NBNS servers.

(6) A set of data together with associated synchronization metadata.

replica GUID (REPLGUID): A value that represents a namespace for identifiers. If a REPLGUID is combined with a GLOBSET, the result is a set of global identifiers. A REPLGUID value has an associated replica ID (REPLID) that is used in its place on disk and on the wire.

replica ID (REPLID): A value that is mapped to a replica GUID (REPLGUID) that identifies a namespace for IDs within a given logon. REPLIDs are used on disk and on the wire for compactness, and are replaced with the corresponding REPLGUID for external consumption.

replicated update: An update performed to a naming context (NC) replica by the replication system, to propagate the effect of an originating update at another NC replica. The stamp assigned during the originating update to attribute values or a link value is preserved by replication.

replication: (1) The process of propagating the effects of all originating writes to any replica of a naming context (NC), to all replicas of the NC. If originating writes cease and replication continues, all replicas converge to a common application-visible state.

(2) An administration scenario in which a replication client application automatically copies multiple conglomerations from a replication source to one or more replication targets.

replication client application: A client application that provides automatic copying of conglomerations between COMA servers, typically using COMA export and import functionality.

replication source: A COMA server whose catalog contains conglomerations to be copied.

replication target: A COMA server whose catalog is to contain the copied conglomerations after replication is performed.

report: (1) A database object that provides a static representation of a set of data and can be used to group, sort, summarize, and aggregate data. The data in a report cannot be edited.

(2) An object that is a combination of three kinds of information: data or other kinds of information about how to obtain the data (queries) as well as the structure of the data; layout or formatting information that describes how the data is presented; and properties of the report, such as author of the report, report parameters, and images included in the report.

request: (1) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in [MS-WSRVCRR] section 2.2.1.

(2) A message from a client to an OCSP responder. The message requests the revocation status of an X.509 certificate (see [RFC2560]).

(3) An HTTP message sent from the client to the server, as defined in [RFC2616].

required attendee: An attendee of an event whom the organizer lists as a mandatory participant.

resend message: A message that is submitted for message delivery after it failed to be sent to all or some of its recipients (1).

resource: (1) Any component that a computer can access where data can be read, written, or processed. This resource could be an internal component such as a disk drive, or another computer on a network that is used to access a file.

(2) A logical entity or unit of data whose state changes in accordance with the outcome of an atomic transaction. Resources are either durable or volatile.

(3) Any physical or logical component that can be managed by a cluster. A resource is owned by a single node at any one time.

(4) An endpoint that represents a distinct type of management operation or value. A client exposes one or more resources and some resources can have more than one instance. For example, the Win32_LogicalDisk class represents a resource and Win32_LogicalDisk="C:\" is a specific instance of the resource.

(5) A network-accessible data object or service that is identified by an IRI, as defined in [RFC2616].

(6) An object that a client is requesting access to, typically referenced by a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), as specified in [RFC3986].

(7) An object created and retained by the composition engine running on the client, on behalf of the server. Resources are referenced in the protocol via handles. Resource handles are scoped to the channel on which they are created. The server may create multiple resources per channel.

(8) An entity that can be identified by a URI. This term is used as specified in [RFC2616] section 1.3.

(9) In WS-Transfer, resources are entities that have an XML representation and can be addressed by an endpoint reference [WXFR].

resource allocation: The part of a RAP that specifies the part of a computer's hardware resources that can be allocated to the processes in a PMC. A resource allocation can specify any of the following: a percentage of processor bandwidth, a processor affinity mask, an amount of physical memory, or an amount of virtual memory. A resource allocation includes a specification of at least one resource.

resource allocation policy (RAP): A named specification for allocating computer resources to all of the managed processes on a computer. A RAP specifies how the managed resources of a computer can be divided among managed processes running on the computer by providing an ordered list of PMC names, each with an associated resource allocation. All processes not matched by any PMC named in the list and not included in the exclusion list are selected into an implicit "residual" PMC.

resource group: (1) A security or distribution group that can contain universal groups, global groups, other domain local groups from its own domain, and accounts from any domain in the forest. Resource groups can be granted rights and permissions on resources that reside only in the same domain where the domain local group is located.

(2) A group object whose membership is added to the authorization context only if the server receiving the context is a member of the same domain as the resource group.

(3) Used interchangeably with process matching criteria (PMC) in Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) Protocol [MS-WSRM].

resource management: A method of allocating the hardware resources of a computer to tasks being performed on that computer. It includes a system of accounting for hardware resources by task. The purpose of the WSRM Protocol is to control the resource management of a computer.

resource manager (RM): The participant that is responsible for coordinating the state of a resource with the outcome of atomic transactions. For a specified transaction, a resource manager enlists with exactly one transaction manager to vote on that transaction outcome and to obtain the final outcome. A resource manager is either durable or volatile, depending on its resource.

Resource object: An Address Book object that represents an asset that can be reserved, such as a room or equipment.

resource policy object: A persistent object that is maintained by the management service, created by a management client, or built-in to the management service. Resource policy objects specify the desired resource management behavior of the computer whose resources are under management.

responder: (1) The computer that responds to request messages.

(2) The party that responds to the first message of an AuthIP exchange.

(3) The party that responds to the first message of an IKE exchange.

(4) An OCSP Extensions server that provides OCSP responses (see [RFC2560]).

(5) An LLTD–capable station to which mappers and enumerators send LLTD commands.

response: (1) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in [MS-WSRVCRR] section 2.2.2.

(2) A message from an OCSP responder. The message specifies the status of an X.509 certificate (see [RFC2560]).

(3) An HTTP message sent from the server to the client, as defined in [RFC2616].

(4) A typed buffer of data sent by the client to the server in response to a notification.

response message: (1) A Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) message that is sent from a protocol server to a protocol client in response to a request message. It is sent when the request message is handled successfully by the protocol server.

(2) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in Response Message (section 2.2.2).

restriction: (1) A set of conditions that an item meets to be included in the search results that are returned by a query server in response to a search query.

(2) A filter used to map some domain into a subset of itself, by passing only those items from the domain that match the filter. Restrictions can be used to filter existing Table objects or to define new ones, such as search folder (2) or rule criteria.

(3) A set of conditions that a file must meet to be included in the search results returned by the Generic Search Service (GSS) in response to a search query. A restriction narrows the focus of a search query, limiting the files that the Generic Search Service (GSS) will include in the search results only to those files matching the conditions.

(4) A set of conditions that a file must meet to be included in the search results returned by the indexing service in response to a search query. A restriction narrows the focus of a search query, limiting the files that the indexing service includes in the search results only to those files matching the conditions.

retention policy: A policy that specifies the length of time during which data, documents, and other records must be available for recovery.

retention tag: An element that contains information about the retention policy of a Message object or folder.

Return Value: A Data Value that is returned as part of the results of a Remote Method invocation. For more information, see Remote Method in Abstract Data Model (section 3.1.1).

ReturnTypeDescriptor: An attribute (1) of a MethodInstance. It is the TypeDescriptor that identifies the portion of a Method's return or output Parameters to extract and return as the result of executing the MethodInstance. It defines the View of the EntityInstances returned, with its child TypeDescriptors denoting the Fields of the View.

revocation: The process of invalidating a certificate. For more details, see [RFC3280] section 3.3.

Rich Text Format (RTF): Text with formatting as described in [MSFT-RTF].

rights: Tasks that a user is permitted to perform on a computer, site, domain, or other system resource. See also permission.

rights policy template: An XrML 1.2 document that contains a predefined usage policy that is used to create the PL when content is protected. Conceptually, a rights policy template (or "template") is a blueprint for a PL, identifying authorized users and the actions they are authorized to take with the content (along with any conditions on that usage). Unlike a PL, a template does not contain a content key or information about the content owner. The content key and information about the content owner are required to be added when the PL for a given piece is created from the template. End users can use a template when protecting a document instead of defining the specifics of the usage policy themselves. When a document is published using a template, the template is used to generate the PL.

rights-managed email message: An email message that specifies permissions that are designed to protect its content from inappropriate access, use, and distribution.

RMD: See reliable messaging destination (RMD).

RMS: See reliable messaging source (RMS).

Root folder: The special folder that is the top-level folder in a message store hierarchy. It contains all other Folder objects in that message store.

root license: A license whose rules can be further restricted or augmented by terms in a leaf license. A root license can be more or less restrictive than a leaf license.

ROP buffer: A structure containing an array of bytes that encode a remote operation (ROP). The first byte in the buffer identifies the ROP. This byte is followed by ROP-specific fields. Multiple ROP buffers can be packed into a single remote procedure call (RPC) request or response.

ROP request: See ROP request buffer.

ROP request buffer: A ROP buffer that a client sends to a server to be processed.

ROP response: See ROP response buffer.

ROP response buffer: A ROP buffer that a server sends to a client to be processed.

row: (1) A collection of columns (1) that contains property values that describe a single item in a set of items that match the restriction (1) specified in a query.

(2) A single set of data that is displayed horizontally in a worksheet or a table.

(3) The collection of columns containing the property values that describe a single result from the set of objects that matched the restrictions specified in the search query submitted to the Generic Search Service (GSS).

(4) The collection of columns that contains the property values that describe a single file from the set of files that matched the restriction specified in the search query submitted to the indexing service

RPC dynamic endpoint: A network-specific server address that is requested and assigned at run time, as described in [C706].

RPC protocol sequence: A character string that represents a valid combination of a remote procedure call (RPC) protocol, a network layer protocol, and a transport layer protocol, as described in [C706] and [MS-RPCE].

RPC transport: The underlying network services used by the remote procedure call (RPC) runtime for communications between network nodes. For more information, see [C706] section 2.

RSS item: An item element in an RSS feed, as described in [RSS2.0].

RSS object: A Message object that represents an entry from an RSS item or atom feed.

RTCP packet: A control packet consisting of a fixed header part similar to that of RTP packets, followed by structured elements that vary depending upon the RTCP packet type. Typically, multiple RTCP packets are sent together as a compound RTCP packet in a single packet of the underlying protocol; this is enabled by the length field in the fixed header of each RTCP packet. See [RFC3550] section 3.

RTP packet: A data packet consisting of the fixed RTP header, a possibly empty list of contributing sources, and the payload data. Some underlying protocols may require an encapsulation of the RTP packet to be defined. Typically one packet of the underlying protocol contains a single RTP packet, but several RTP packets can be contained if permitted by the encapsulation method. See [RFC3550] section 3.

RTP session: An association among a set of participants (2) who are communicating by using the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP), as described in [RFC3550]. Each RTP session maintains a full, separate space of Synchronization Source (SSRC) identifiers.

rule: (1) A condition or action, or a set of conditions or actions, that performs tasks automatically based on events and values.

(2) A set of qualifiers, such as enumeration values, and quantifiers, such as numeric arguments, that are specified as usage guidelines for a set of objects or data.

(3) A mapping of a file type to a location in a document repository.

(4) An item that defines a condition and an action. The condition is evaluated for each Message object as it is delivered, and the action is executed if the new Message object matches the condition.

Rule FAI message: A folder associated information (FAI) message stored in the Inbox special folder where the client can store extra rule-related information that is opaque to the server.

rules table: A Table object whose rows represent the rules that are contained in a Folder object.

runspace: An entity capable of running one (and only one) pipeline of commands.