FAI contents table: A table of folder associated information (FAI) Message objects that are stored in a Folder object.
failure response: An HTTP response where the value of the Status-Code element is 4xx or 5xx, as described in [RFC2616].
fallback data culture: A data culture that is selected through an algorithm as a substitute for a data culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.
fallback UI culture: A user interface (UI) culture that is selected through an algorithm as a substitute for a UI culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.
fallback URI: A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), as described in [RFC3986], that specifies the user agent address to which unretrieved calls are transferred.
fanout: The process of transmitting a message from a client device to a relay server for replication and distribution to multiple recipients.
farm: A group of computers that work together as a single system to help ensure that applications and resources are available. Also referred to as server farm.
FAT32 file system: A derivative of the file allocation table (FAT) file system. FAT32 supports smaller cluster sizes and larger volumes than FAT, which results in more efficient space allocation on FAT32volumes. FAT32 uses 32-bit addressing.
fax message: (1) A Message object that contains a digital representation of content received from a fax machine.
(2) See message.
feature: A package of SharePoint elements that can be activated or deactivated for a specific feature scope.
feature identifier: A GUID that identifies a feature.
feature receiver: A server-side code routine that is called when a feature is activated, deactivated, installed, uninstalled, or upgraded on a computer, server farm, or server cluster.
feature scope: The scope at which a feature can be activated.
federated location: A source that returns search results for a search query. The source can be a local search catalog or an OpenSearch1.0/1.1-compliant search engine, as described in [OpenSearch1.1-Draft3].
federated partner: An enterprise that is trusted for federation (2).
federated user: An external user who possesses valid credentials with a federated partner and who therefore is treated as authenticated by a protocol server.
federation: (1) The ability to issue a query to multiple federated locations, which are described by federated location definitions, and to return the results in a single search results page.
(2) The ability of a server deployment to interoperate with other servers that were deployed by other enterprises.
(3) A collection of security realms that have established trust.
feed entity: An object that represents anything that can have a feed, such as a user, a document, or a site.
feed entry: The data contained in a posting to a feed.
field: (1) An element or attribute (1) in a data source that can contain data.
(2) A container for metadata within a SharePoint list and associated list items.
(3) A discrete unit of a record that has a name, a data type, and a value.
(4) The data elements that constitute an Entity in a line-of-business (LOB) system.
(5) An attribute or role of an entity.
field definition: The definition of a field in the Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML).
field identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a field.
field internal name: A string that uniquely identifies a field in a content type or a SharePoint list.
field link: A property that specifies a reference from a content type to a field (2) or field definition.
field type: A name that identifies the action or effect that a field has within a document. Examples of field types are Author, Page, Comments, and Date.
file: (1) A single, discrete unit of content.
(2) An entity of data in the file system that a user can access and manage. A file must have a unique name in its directory. It consists of one or more streams of bytes that hold a set of related data, plus a set of attributes (also called properties) that describe the file or the data within the file. The creation time of a file is an example of a file attribute.
(3) A unit of data in the file system. An encrypted file consists of encrypted data along with the metadata required for a user to decrypt the file. The file and its metadata are protected using public key cryptography such that an authorized user's private key is required to decrypt the file.
(4) A file is a typed data stream. A file does not imply storage of the data stream in any particular medium or with any particular organization, or, for example, in a file system (italic is used when referring to traditional files).
file allocation table (FAT): A data structure that the operating system creates when a volume is formatted by using FAT or FAT32file systems. The operating system stores information about each file in the FAT so that it can retrieve the file later.
File Allocation Table (FAT): A file system that is used by MS-DOS and Windows operating systems to organize and manage files.
file data object: An object that represents a file that was inserted into a OneNote revision store file. It can be stored internally as a data stream in the revision store file, or externally in the onefiles folder.
file extension: The sequence of characters in a file's name between the end of the file's name and the last "." character. Vendors of applications choose such sequences for the applications to uniquely identify files that were created by those applications. This allows file management software to determine which application should be used to open a file.
File Replication Service (FRS): One of the services offered by a domain controller (DC), which is advertised through the Domain Controller Location protocol. The service being offered to clients is a replicated data storage volume that is associated with the default naming context (NC). The running or paused state of the FRS on a DC is available through protocols documented in [MS-ADTS] section 6.3.
file system: (1) A system that enables applications to store and retrieve files on storage devices. Files are placed in a hierarchical structure. The file system specifies naming conventions for files and the format for specifying the path to a file in the tree structure. Each file system consists of one or more drivers and DLLs that define the data formats and features of the file system. File systems can exist on the following storage devices: diskettes, hard disks, jukeboxes, removable optical disks, and tape backup units.
(2) A system that enables applications to store and retrieve files on storage devices. Files are placed in a hierarchical structure. The file system specifies naming conventions for files and the format for specifying the path to a file in the tree structure. Each file system consists of one or more drivers and DLLs that define the data formats and features of the file system. File systems can exist on the following storage devices: diskettes, hard disks, jukeboxes, removable optical disks, and tape backup units.
(3) A set of data structures for naming, organizing, and storing files in a volume. NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 are examples of file system types.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to copy files between two computers on the Internet if both computers support their respective FTP roles. One computer is an FTP client and the other is an FTP server.
fill: A color, pattern, or other attribute that is used to format the background of a cell, shape, or chart element. See also fill color and fill pattern.
fill alignment: A setting that repeats a cell value to fill the horizontal space of a cell. If the cell value exceeds the horizontal width of the cell, the value is truncated.
fill color: A color that is used to fill the background of a cell, shape, or chart element.
fill pattern: A repetitive design that users can add to the background of a cell, shape, or chart element.
filter: (1) A mechanism by which a set of data is scoped to display only those entries that meet specified logical criteria.
(2) A setting that excludes subfolders (and their contents) or files from replication. There are two types of filters: file filters and folder filters.
(3) In the context of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), the filter is one of the parameters in a search request. The filter specifies matching constraints for the candidate objects.
(4) A configuration on a network access server (NAS) that specifies the types of traffic that are acceptable for IP local host traffic. Filters can block or allow traffic by IP address, IP protocol, TCP port, or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port.
(5) A processing object in the scan repository identified by scan documents that is a unique URI. This object will perform a specific operation in a PostScan job. The operations performed by each filter are governed by the filter dialect URI and filter-specific instructions.
(6) Type of driver that is layered between the kernel and a base file system (such as FAT or NTFS) that receives I/O request packets on their way to and from the base file system. The term filter can refer to legacy filters or minifilters.
(7) A set of criteria that controls the set of records that is returned as a result set.
filter date value: Any one of a set of possible date values that can be used to define the filter criteria for an AutoFilter.
filter value: Any one of a set of possible values that can be used to define the filter criteria for an AutoFilter.
FilterDescriptor: A type of MetadataObject that describes a normalized way of gathering input from users. A FilterDescriptor is defined by its type and the Method that contains it.
filtering control: A user interface element that contains the filter functions of a PivotTable report.
filtering state: A setting that indicates whether a filter value or filter date value is included as part of the criteria that is used to define the filter for an AutoFilter.
filter-specific instructions: A set of data elements that tell a specific filter how to process the scan document(s) that are part of a PostScan job. The definition of these data elements is specific to each filter.
final offer: An offer that is sent by a caller at the end of connectivity checks and carries the local candidate and the remote candidate that were selected for media flow.
final response: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) response that terminates an SIP transaction. All 2xx, 3xx, 4xx, 5xx, and 6xx responses are final.
Finder: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a collection of zero or more EntityInstances of a specific Entity. Finder input is defined by the FilterDescriptors that are contained in the Method that contains the Finder.
firewall rule: A group of settings that specify which connections are allowed into and out of a client computer.
first-party request: A conference control request that modifies the state of the sending participant only.
fit to page: A printing option that scales a document to print on a specified number of pages.
flags: A set of values used to configure or report options or settings.
floating-point number: A number that is represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is typically a value between "0" and "1". To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result.
floor: An extension of the horizontal axis, or the area created by the inclusion of the z axis, in a 3-D chart to create a three-dimensional effect. See also wall.
flow: (1) The direction in which text in a cell is rendered.
(2) A TCP session or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) pseudosession, identified by a 5-tuple (source and destination IP and ports, and protocol). By extension, a request/response Internet Control Message protocol (ICMP) exchange (for example, ICMP echo) is also a flow.
focus: A single user agent that maintains a dialog and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) signaling relationship with each participant (2), implements conference policies, and ensures that each participant receives the media that comprise the tightly coupled conference.
Focus Factory: A component that is responsible for creating, managing, and deleting conferences.
folder: (1) A file system construct. File systems organize data by providing a hierarchy of objects, which are referred to as folders or directories, that contain files and can also contain other folders.
(2) A file system construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of objects known as folders or directories, which contain files.
(3) A container for files and other folders. A folder may be encrypted. The semantics of encrypting a folder are implementation-dependent. In the Windows implementation, encrypting a folder does not directly cause any data to be encrypted. Encrypting a folder in Windows has the following consequences of EFSRPC Metadata is created and stored with the folder and an NTFS attribute is set on the folder to signify that it is encrypted. NTFS checks this attribute when any new files or folders are created in the folder. NTFS will automatically encrypt any files or folders created within a folder that has this attribute set.
folder associated information (FAI): A collection of Message objects that are stored in a Folder object and are typically hidden from view by email applications. An FAI Message object is used to store a variety of settings and auxiliary data, including forms, views, calendar options, favorites, and category lists.
Folder object: A messaging construct that is typically used to organize data into a hierarchy of objects containing Message objects and folder associated information (FAI) Message objects.
font: An object that defines the graphic design, or formatting, of a collection of numbers, symbols, and letters. A font specifies the style (such as bold and strikeout), size, family (a typeface such as Times New Roman), and other qualities to describe how the collection is drawn.
font face color: A property of a cell that specifies the color that is used to render a font.
font face decoration: Any of the set of font properties that specify how to render a font, such as italics and underline.
font face weight: A value that specifies the thickness of a font.
font family: A set of fonts that all have common stroke width and serif characteristics. For example, Times Roman and Times Roman Italic are members of the same font family.
font scaling: A process of resizing a proportionally-spaced font.
font scheme: A combination of complementary fonts in a theme.
footer: One or more lines of text in the bottom margin area of a page in a document or a slide in a presentation. A footer typically contains elements such as the page number and the name of the file.
footnote: A note that appears at the end of a page, section, chapter, or publication. It explains, comments on, or provides references for text in the main body of a document. A footnote consists of two linked parts, a reference mark within the main body of the document and the corresponding text of the note.
forecast: The process of projecting values forward or backward in a series, based on trends in existing data.
foreground color: A color that is used to display text, patterns, and other objects that appear in front of or on top of the background color.
forest: (1) One or more domains that share a common schema and trust each other transitively. An organization can have multiple forests. A forest establishes the security and administrative boundary for all objects that reside within the domains that belong to the forest. In contrast, a domain establishes the administrative boundary for managing objects, such as users, groups, and computers. In addition, each domain has individual security policies and trust relationships with other domains.
(2) In the Active Directory directory service, a forest is a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema NC, one config NC, and one or more domain NCs. Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set of one or several trees of NCs.
(3) One or more domains that share a common schema and trust each other transitively. An organization can have multiple forests. A forest establishes the security and administrative boundary for all the objects that reside within the domains that belong to the forest. In contrast, a domain establishes the administrative boundary for managing objects, such as users, groups, and computers. In addition, each domain has individual security policies and trust relationships with other domains.
(4) In the Active Directory directory service, a forest is a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema NC, one config NC, and one or more domain NCs. Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set of one or several trees of NCs.
(5) For Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema naming context (schema NC), one configuration naming context (config NC), one or more domain naming contexts (domain NCs), and zero or more application naming contexts (application NCs). Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set containing one or several trees of NCs. For AD LDS, a set of NCs consisting of one schema NC, one config NC, and zero or more application NCs. (In Microsoft documentation, an AD LDSforest is called a "configuration set".)
form: (1) A structured document with controls and spaces that are reserved for entering and displaying information. Forms can contain special coding for actions such as submitting and querying data.
(2) A document with a set of controls into which users can enter information. Controls on a form can be bound to elements in the data source of the form, such as fields and groups. See also bind.
form definition (.xsf) file: An XML file with an .xsf file name extension. The file contains information about the files and components that are used within a form, including user interface customizations, XML schemas, views, business logic (1), events (2), and deployment settings.
form digest: An object that is inserted into a page and is used by a protocol server to validate client requests. The validation is specific to a user, site, and time period.
form digest validation: A type of security validation that helps prevent an attack wherein users are tricked into posting data to a server.
form file: An XML file that contains data that is entered into an InfoPath form by using a web browser or Microsoft InfoPath.
form library: A type of document library that is optimized for storing and displaying data in XML-based forms.
form security level: A setting that determines whether an InfoPath form can access data on other domains, or access files and settings on a user's computer. There are three security levels for forms: Restricted, Domain, and Full Trust.
form server: A server that can host XML-based electronic forms and that supports rendering those forms in a web browser.
form template: A file or set of files that defines the data structure, appearance, and behavior of a form (2).
form template (.xsn) file: A cabinet (.cab) file with an .xsn file name extension that contains the files that comprise a form template.
form view: A display setting that is saved with an InfoPath form template and specifies which controls and data appear on a form when the form is being filled out.
format: (1) To submit a command for a volume to write metadata to the disk, which is used by the file system to organize the data on the disk. A volume is formatted with a specific file system.
(2) A data structure that is used to define the encoding of audio and video data. The actual structures are opaque to [MS-RDPEV].
(3) A set of flags that encapsulates text layout information such as alignment, text direction, and trimming.
format string: A string that contains the number formatting information to apply to data, such as decimal position, percentage indicator, or currency symbol.
formatting run: A set of formatting properties that are applied to a text run.
forms authentication: An authentication (2) method in which protocol clients redirect unauthenticated requests to an HTML form by using HTTP. If the protocol client authenticates the request, the system issues a cookie that stores the credentials or a key for reacquiring the identity. In subsequent requests, the cookie is submitted in request headers and the requests are authenticated and authorized by an ASP.NET event handler that uses the validation method that is specified by the protocol client.
formula: A logical equation or function that produces a result in a spreadsheet application.
formula bar: A user interface element that appears at the top of a worksheet and is used to display and edit cell content.
forward error correction (FEC): A process in which a sender uses redundancy to enable a receiver to recover from packet loss.
forward link: A hyperlink between a referenced document and a referencing party. For example, if Document A contains a hyperlink to Document B, Document A has a forward link to Document B.
forward link attribute: An attribute whose values include object references (for example, an attribute of syntax Object(DS-DN)). The forward link values can be used to compute the values of a related attribute, a back link attribute, on other objects. If an object o refers to object r in forward link attribute f, and there exists a back link attribute b corresponding to f, then a back link value referring to o exists in attribute b on object r. The relationship between the forward and back link attributes is expressed using the linkId attribute on the attributeSchema objects representing the two attributes. The forward link's linkId is an even number, and the back link's linkId is the forward link's linkId plus one. A forward link attribute can exist with no corresponding back link attribute, but not vice-versa. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].
forward link value: The value of a forward link attribute.
forwarder: The forwarder is the kernel-mode component of the router that is responsible for forwarding data from one router interface to the others. The forwarder also decides whether a packet is destined for local delivery, whether it is destined to be forwarded out of another interface, or both. There are two kernel-mode forwardersunicast and multicast.
forwarders: A DNS server that is designated to facilitate forwarding of queries for other DNS servers.
foundation: A string that is a property associated with a candidate. The string is the same for candidates that are of the same type, protocol, and base IP addresses, and are obtained from the same STUN/TURN server for relayed and server reflexive candidates.
fragment: (1) A component of a URI that allows for indirect identification of a secondary resource by reference to a primary resource, as defined in [RFC3986] section 3.5.
(2) An independently downloadable unit of media that comprises one or more samples.
(3) The term "fragment" that is defined in XMD/2.
frame: (1) A space, displayed onscreen as a box, that contains a specific element of a publication.
(2) A rectangular section of a webpage that is a separate HTML document from the rest of the page. Webpages can have multiple frames, each of which is a separate document.
(3) A CIFS Browser Protocol message.
friendly name: A name for a user or object that can be read and understood easily by a human.
front-end web server: A server that hosts webpages, performs processing tasks, and accepts requests from protocol clients and sends them to the appropriate back-end server for further processing.
frozen: See frozen panes.
frozen panes: Portions of a worksheet that remain static and do not scroll when the worksheet is displayed in split pane view. See also split pane.
FRS: See File Replication Service (FRS).
full: An Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) implementation that adheres to the complete set of functionality described in [MS-ICE2].
full address book file: An address book file that contains a complete set of the address book contacts that existed when the file was generated by the user, contact, and groups objects in AD DS.
full crawl: A crawl process that indexes all of the items in a specified content source, regardless of whether the item was modified.
full URL: A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web.
full-text index catalog: A collection of full-text index components and other files that are organized in a specific directory structure and contain the data that is needed to perform queries.
fully qualified class name: A class name that includes namespace information. Use of a fully qualified class name ensures that the class name is treated as unique.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN): (1) An unambiguous domain name (2) that gives an absolute location in the Domain Name System's (DNS) hierarchy tree, as defined in [RFC1035] section 3.1 and [RFC2181] section 11.
(2) In Active Directory, a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) (1) that identifies a domain.
(3) A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) (1) that does not include the “ldap/” prefix.
fully qualified URL: A URL that includes a protocol scheme name, a host name, optionally a port number, a path, optionally a search part, and optionally a fragment identifier, as described in [RFC2616].
function: A code module that takes a value as input, performs an operation, and returns the results to a worksheet.
function category: A group of worksheet functions that are part of the same broad usage area, such as Finance or Statistical. A function category can be built-in or user-defined.
future function: A function that can be written to but is not implemented in a file.