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Distributed Transactions (Database Engine)

Distributed transactions span two or more servers known as resource managers. The management of the transaction must be coordinated between the resource managers by a server component called a transaction manager. Each instance of the SQL Server Database Engine can operate as a resource manager in distributed transactions coordinated by transaction managers, such as Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS DTC), or other transaction managers that support the Open Group XA specification for distributed transaction processing. For more information, see the MS DTC documentation.

A transaction within a single instance of the Database Engine that spans two or more databases is actually a distributed transaction. The instance manages the distributed transaction internally; to the user, it operates as a local transaction.

At the application, a distributed transaction is managed much the same as a local transaction. At the end of the transaction, the application requests the transaction to be either committed or rolled back. A distributed commit must be managed differently by the transaction manager to minimize the risk that a network failure may result in some resource managers successfully committing while others roll back the transaction. This is achieved by managing the commit process in two phases (the prepare phase and the commit phase), which is known as a two-phase commit (2PC).

  • Prepare phase
    When the transaction manager receives a commit request, it sends a prepare command to all of the resource managers involved in the transaction. Each resource manager then does everything required to make the transaction durable, and all buffers holding log images for the transaction are flushed to disk. As each resource manager completes the prepare phase, it returns success or failure of the prepare to the transaction manager.

  • Commit phase
    If the transaction manager receives successful prepares from all of the resource managers, it sends commit commands to each resource manager. The resource managers can then complete the commit. If all of the resource managers report a successful commit, the transaction manager then sends a success notification to the application. If any resource manager reported a failure to prepare, the transaction manager sends a rollback command to each resource manager and indicates the failure of the commit to the application.

Database Engine applications can manage distributed transactions either through Transact-SQL or the database API.