Applies to: SQL Server (all supported versions) Azure SQL Managed Instance
Provides ad hoc connection information as part of a four-part object name without using a linked server name.
OPENDATASOURCE ( 'provider_name', 'init_string' )
To view Transact-SQL syntax for SQL Server 2014 and earlier, see Previous versions documentation.
Is the name registered as the PROGID of the OLE DB provider used to access the data source. provider_name is a char data type, with no default value.
The SQL Server Native Client (often abbreviated SNAC) has been removed from SQL Server 2022 (16.x) and SQL Server Management Studio 19 (SSMS). Both the SQL Server Native Client OLE DB provider (SQLNCLI or SQLNCLI11) and the legacy Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server (SQLOLEDB) are not recommended for new development. Switch to the new Microsoft OLE DB Driver (MSOLEDBSQL) for SQL Server going forward.
Is the connection string passed to the IDataInitialize interface of the destination provider. The provider string syntax is based on keyword-value pairs separated by semicolons, such as: 'keyword1=value ; keyword2=value'.
For specific keyword-value pairs supported on the provider, see the Microsoft Data Access SDK. This documentation defines the basic syntax. The following table lists the most frequently used keywords in the init_string argument.
|Keyword||OLE DB property||Valid values and description|
|Data Source||DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE||Name of the data source to connect to. Different providers interpret this in different ways. For SQL Server Native Client OLE DB provider, this indicates the name of the server. For Jet OLE DB provider, this indicates the full path of the .mdb file or .xls file.|
|Location||DBPROP_INIT_LOCATION||Location of the database to connect to.|
|Extended Properties||DBPROP_INIT_PROVIDERSTRING||The provider-specific connect-string.|
|Connect timeout||DBPROP_INIT_TIMEOUT||Time out value after which the connection try fails.|
|User ID||DBPROP_AUTH_USERID||User ID to be used for the connection.|
|Password||DBPROP_AUTH_PASSWORD||Password to be used for the connection.|
|Catalog||DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG||The name of the initial or default catalog when connecting to the data source.|
|Integrated Security||DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED||SSPI, to specify Windows Authentication|
OPENROWSET always inherits the instance collation, irrespective of collation set for columns.
OPENDATASOURCE can be used to access remote data from OLE DB data sources only when the DisallowAdhocAccess registry option is explicitly set to 0 for the specified provider, and the Ad Hoc Distributed Queries advanced configuration option is enabled. When these options are not set, the default behavior does not allow for ad hoc access.
OPENDATASOURCE function can be used in the same Transact-SQL syntax locations as a linked-server name. Therefore,
OPENDATASOURCE can be used as the first part of a four-part name that refers to a table or view name in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement, or to a remote stored procedure in an EXECUTE statement. When executing remote stored procedures,
OPENDATASOURCE should refer to another instance of SQL Server. OPENDATASOURCE does not accept variables for its arguments.
OPENDATASOURCE should only reference OLE DB data sources that are accessed infrequently. Define a linked server for any data sources accessed more than several times. Neither OPENDATASOURCE nor OPENROWSET provides all the functionality of linked-server definitions, such as security management and the ability to query catalog information. All connection information, including passwords, must be provided every time that OPENDATASOURCE is called.
Windows Authentication is much more secure than SQL Server Authentication. You should use Windows Authentication whenever possible.
OPENDATASOURCE should not be used with explicit passwords in the connection string.
The connection requirements for each provider are similar to the requirements for those parameters when creating linked servers. The details for many common providers are listed in the article sp_addlinkedserver (Transact-SQL).
Any call to
OPENROWSET in the
FROM clause is evaluated separately and independently from any call to these functions used as the target of the update, even if identical arguments are supplied to the two calls. In particular, filter or join conditions applied on the result of one of those calls has no effect on the results of the other.
Any user can execute OPENDATASOURCE. The permissions that are used to connect to the remote server are determined from the connection string.
A. Using OPENDATASOURCE with SELECT and the SQL Server OLE DB Driver
The following example uses the Microsoft OLE DB Driver for SQL Server to access the
HumanResources.Department table in the
AdventureWorks2019 database on the remote server
SELECT statement is used to define the row set returned. The provider string contains the
Trusted_Connection keywords. These keywords are recognized by the SQL Server OLE DB Driver.
SELECT GroupName, Name, DepartmentID FROM OPENDATASOURCE('MSOLEDBSQL', 'Server=Seattle1;Database=AdventureWorks2016;TrustServerCertificate=Yes;Trusted_Connection=Yes;').HumanResources.Department ORDER BY GroupName, Name;
B. Using OPENDATASOURCE with SELECT and the SQL Server OLE DB Provider
The following example creates an ad hoc connection to the
Payroll instance of SQL Server on server
London, and queries the
Using SQLNCLI will redirect SQL Server to the latest version of SQL Server Native Client OLE DB Provider. The OLE DB provider is expected to be registered with the specified PROGID in the registry.
SQL Server Native Client OLE DB provider (SQLNCLI) remains deprecated and it is not recommended to use it for new development work. Instead, use the new Microsoft OLE DB Driver for SQL Server (MSOLEDBSQL) which will be updated with the most recent server features.
SELECT * FROM OPENDATASOURCE('SQLNCLI', 'Data Source=London\Payroll;Integrated Security=SSPI') .AdventureWorks2012.HumanResources.Employee;
C. Using the Microsoft OLE DB Provider for Jet
The following example creates an ad hoc connection to an Excel spreadsheet in the 1997 - 2003 format.
SELECT * FROM OPENDATASOURCE('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0', 'Data Source=C:\DataFolder\Documents\TestExcel.xls;Extended Properties=EXCEL 5.0')...[Sheet1$] ;