使用 RPC 和进程输出执行SQL Server Native Client存储过程

适用于:SQL Server (所有受支持的版本) Azure SQL数据库Azure SQL 托管实例 Azure Synapse Analytics Platform System (PDW)

SQL Server 存储过程可具有整数返回代码和输出参数。 返回代码和输出参数位于从服务器发送的最后一个数据包中,因此直到行集完全释放时它们才可供应用程序使用。 如果命令返回多个结果,则输出参数数据在 IMultipleResults::GetResult 返回 DB_S_NORESULT 时或 IMultipleResults 接口完全释放时(以二者中先发生的为准)可用 。

重要

请尽可能使用 Windows 身份验证。 如果 Windows 身份验证不可用,请在运行时提示用户输入其凭据。 不要将凭据存储在一个文件中。 如果必须保存凭据,应当用 Win32 crypto API 对它们加密。

处理返回代码和输出参数

  1. 构造使用 RPC 转义序列的 SQL 语句。

  2. 调用 ICommandWithParameters::SetParameterInfo 方法以向访问接口描述参数 。 在 PARAMBINDINFO 结构数组中填写参数信息。

  3. 通过使用 DBBINDING 结构数组创建一组绑定(每个参数创建者一个)。

  4. 使用 IAccessor::CreateAccessor 方法,为定义的参数创建取值函数。 CreateAccessor 从一组绑定创建取值函数 。

  5. 填写 DBPARAMS 结构。

  6. 调用 Execute 命令(在这种情况下是调用存储过程) 。

  7. 使用 IRowset::Release 方法,处理并释放行集。

  8. 处理从存储过程接收的返回代码和输出参数值。

示例

此示例说明了如何处理行集、返回代码和输出参数。 不处理结果集。 IA64 平台不支持此示例。

此示例要求使用 AdventureWorks 示例数据库,其可从 Microsoft SQL Server 示例和社区项目主页下载。

执行第一个 (Transact-SQL) 代码列表,以创建该应用程序使用的存储过程。

使用 ole32.lib 和 oleaut32.lib 编译并执行第二个 (C++) 代码列表。 此应用程序连接到您的计算机上默认的 SQL Server 实例。 在某些 Windows 操作系统上,您需要将 (localhost) 或 (local) 更改为您的 SQL Server 实例的名称。 若要连接到命名实例,请将连接字符串从 L"(local)" 更改为 L"(local)\\name",其中 name 是命名实例。 默认情况下,SQL Server Express 安装在命名实例中。 请确保 INCLUDE 环境变量包含包含 sqlncli.h 的目录。

执行第三个 (Transact-SQL) 代码列表,以删除该应用程序使用的存储过程。

USE AdventureWorks  
if exists (SELECT * FROM sys.objects WHERE object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[myProc]'))  
   DROP PROCEDURE myProc  
GO  
  
CREATE PROCEDURE myProc   
    @inparam nvarchar(5),  
    @outparam int OUTPUT  
  
AS  
SELECT Color, ListPrice   
FROM Production.Product WHERE Size > @inparam  
SELECT @outparam = 100  
  
IF  (@outparam > 0)  
    RETURN 999  
ELSE  
    RETURN 888  
GO  
// compile with: ole32.lib oleaut32.lib  
void InitializeAndEstablishConnection();  
  
#define UNICODE  
#define DBINITCONSTANTS  
#define INITGUID  
#define OLEDBVER 0x0250   // to include correct interfaces  
  
#include <windows.h>  
#include <stdio.h>  
#include <stddef.h>  
#include <iostream>  
#include <oledb.h>  
#include <oledberr.h>  
#include <SQLNCLI.h>  
  
using namespace std;  
IDBInitialize* pIDBInitialize = NULL;  
IDBCreateSession* pIDBCreateSession = NULL;  
IDBCreateCommand* pIDBCreateCommand = NULL;  
ICommandText* pICommandText = NULL;  
IRowset* pIRowset = NULL;  
ICommandWithParameters* pICommandWithParams = NULL;  
IAccessor* pIAccessor = NULL;  
IDBProperties* pIDBProperties = NULL;  
WCHAR* pStringsBuffer;  
DBBINDING* pBindings;  
const ULONG nInitProps = 4;  
DBPROP InitProperties[nInitProps];  
const ULONG nPropSet = 1;  
DBPROPSET rgInitPropSet[nPropSet];  
HRESULT hr;  
HACCESSOR hAccessor;  
const ULONG nParams = 3;   // Number of parameters in the command  
DBPARAMBINDINFO ParamBindInfo[nParams];  
ULONG i;  
ULONG cbColOffset = 0;  
  
DB_UPARAMS ParamOrdinals[nParams];  
DBROWCOUNT cNumRows = 0;  
DBPARAMS Params;  
  
// Declare an array of DBBINDING structures, one for each parameter in the command.  
DBBINDING acDBBinding[nParams];  
DBBINDSTATUS acDBBindStatus[nParams];  
  
// The following buffer is used to store parameter values.  
typedef struct tagSPROCPARAMS {  
   long lReturnValue;  
   long outParam;  
   long inParam;  
} SPROCPARAMS;  
  
int main() {  
   // The command to execute.    
   // WCHAR* wCmdString = L"{? = call myProc(?,?)}";  
   WCHAR* wCmdString = L"{rpc myProc}";  
   SPROCPARAMS sprocparams = {0,0,14};  
  
   // All the initialization activities in a separate function.  
   InitializeAndEstablishConnection();  
  
   // Create a new activity from the data source object.  
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface(IID_IDBCreateSession,   
                                             (void**) &pIDBCreateSession))) {  
      cout << "Failed to access IDBCreateSession interface.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   if ( FAILED(pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession( NULL, IID_IDBCreateCommand,   
                                                (IUnknown**) &pIDBCreateCommand))) {  
      cout << "pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession failed.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   // Create a Command object.  
   if (FAILED(pIDBCreateCommand->CreateCommand( NULL,         
                                                IID_ICommandText,   
                                                (IUnknown**) &pICommandText))) {  
      cout << "Failed to access ICommand interface.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   // Set the command text.  
   if (FAILED(pICommandText->SetCommandText(DBGUID_DBSQL, wCmdString))) {  
      cout << "Failed to set command text.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   // Describe the command parameters (parameter name, provider specific name of  
   // the parameter's data type, and so on.) in an array of DBPARAMBINDINFO   
   // structures.  This information is then used by SetParameterInfo().  
   ParamBindInfo[0].pwszDataSourceType = L"DBTYPE_I4";  
   ParamBindInfo[0].pwszName = L"@ReturnVal";   // return value from sp  
   ParamBindInfo[0].ulParamSize = sizeof(long);  
   ParamBindInfo[0].dwFlags = DBPARAMFLAGS_ISOUTPUT;  
   ParamBindInfo[0].bPrecision = 11;  
   ParamBindInfo[0].bScale = 0;  
   ParamOrdinals[0] = 1;  
  
   ParamBindInfo[1].pwszDataSourceType = L"DBTYPE_I4";  
   ParamBindInfo[1].pwszName = L"@inparam";  
   ParamBindInfo[1].ulParamSize = sizeof(long);  
   ParamBindInfo[1].dwFlags = DBPARAMFLAGS_ISINPUT;  
   ParamBindInfo[1].bPrecision = 11;  
   ParamBindInfo[1].bScale = 0;  
   ParamOrdinals[1] = 2;  
  
   ParamBindInfo[2].pwszDataSourceType = L"DBTYPE_I4";  
   ParamBindInfo[2].pwszName = L"@outparam";  
   ParamBindInfo[2].ulParamSize = sizeof(long);  
   ParamBindInfo[2].dwFlags = DBPARAMFLAGS_ISOUTPUT;  
   ParamBindInfo[2].bPrecision = 11;  
   ParamBindInfo[2].bScale = 0;  
   ParamOrdinals[2] = 3;  
  
   //Set the parameters information.  
   if ( FAILED(pICommandText->QueryInterface( IID_ICommandWithParameters,  
                                            (void**)&pICommandWithParams))) {  
      cout << "Failed to obtain ICommandWithParameters.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   if ( FAILED(pICommandWithParams->SetParameterInfo(nParams,   
                                                     ParamOrdinals,   
                                                     ParamBindInfo))) {  
      cout << "Failed in setting parameter information.(SetParameterInfo)\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   // Describe the consumer buffer by filling in the array of DBBINDING structures.  
   // Each binding associates a single parameter to the consumer's buffer.  
   for ( i = 0 ; i < nParams ; i++ ) {  
      acDBBinding[i].obLength = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].obStatus = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].pTypeInfo = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].pObject = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].pBindExt = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwPart = DBPART_VALUE;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwMemOwner = DBMEMOWNER_CLIENTOWNED;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwFlags = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].bScale = 0;  
   }  
  
   acDBBinding[0].iOrdinal = 1;  
   acDBBinding[0].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, lReturnValue);  
   acDBBinding[0].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_OUTPUT;  
   acDBBinding[0].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[0].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[0].bPrecision = 11;  
  
   acDBBinding[1].iOrdinal = 2;  
   acDBBinding[1].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, inParam);  
   acDBBinding[1].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_INPUT;  
   acDBBinding[1].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[1].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[1].bPrecision = 11;  
  
   acDBBinding[2].iOrdinal = 3;  
   acDBBinding[2].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, outParam);  
   acDBBinding[2].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_OUTPUT;  
   acDBBinding[2].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[2].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[2].bPrecision = 11;  
  
   // Create an accessor from the above set of bindings.  
   hr = pICommandWithParams->QueryInterface(IID_IAccessor, (void**)&pIAccessor);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to get IAccessor interface.\n";  
  
   hr = pIAccessor->CreateAccessor( DBACCESSOR_PARAMETERDATA,  
                                    nParams,   
                                    acDBBinding,   
                                    sizeof(SPROCPARAMS),   
                                    &hAccessor,  
                                    acDBBindStatus);  
  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to create accessor for the defined parameters.\n";  
  
   // Fill in DBPARAMS structure for the command execution. This structure   
   // specifies the parameter values in the command and is then passed to Execute.  
   Params.pData = &sprocparams;  
   Params.cParamSets = 1;  
   Params.hAccessor = hAccessor;  
  
   // Execute the command.  
   if (FAILED(hr = pICommandText->Execute( NULL,   
                                           IID_IRowset,   
                                           &Params,   
                                           &cNumRows,   
                                           (IUnknown **) &pIRowset))) {  
      cout << "Failed to execute command.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
  
   printf("After command execution but before rowset processing.\n\n");  
   printf("  Return value = %d\n", sprocparams.lReturnValue);  
   printf("  Output parameter value = %d\n", sprocparams.outParam);  
   printf("  These are the same default values set in the application.\n\n\n");  
  
   // This result set is not important, so release it without processing.  
   pIRowset->Release();  
  
   printf("After processing the result set...\n");  
   printf("  Return value = %d\n", sprocparams.lReturnValue);  
   printf("  Output parameter value = %d\n\n", sprocparams.outParam);  
  
   // Release memory.  
   pIAccessor->ReleaseAccessor(hAccessor, NULL);  
   pIAccessor->Release();  
   pICommandWithParams->Release();  
   pICommandText->Release();  
   pIDBCreateCommand->Release();  
   pIDBCreateSession->Release();      
  
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize()))  
      // Uninitialize is not required, but it fails if an interface  
      // has not been released.  This can be used for debugging.  
      cout << "Problem uninitializing.\n";  
  
   pIDBInitialize->Release();  
  
   CoUninitialize();  
   return 0;  
  
EXIT:  
   if (pIAccessor != NULL)  
      pIAccessor->Release();  
   if (pICommandWithParams != NULL)  
      pICommandWithParams->Release();  
   if (pICommandText != NULL)  
      pICommandText->Release();  
   if (pIDBCreateCommand != NULL)  
      pIDBCreateCommand->Release();  
   if (pIDBCreateSession != NULL)  
      pIDBCreateSession->Release();  
   if (pIDBInitialize != NULL)  
      if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize()))  
         // Uninitialize is not required, but it fails if an interface has not   
         // been released.  This can be used for debugging.  
         cout << "Problem in uninitializing.\n";  
      pIDBInitialize->Release();  
  
   CoUninitialize();  
}  
  
void InitializeAndEstablishConnection() {      
   // Initialize the COM library.  
   CoInitialize(NULL);  
  
   // Obtain access to the SQL Server Native Client OLE DB provider.      
   hr = CoCreateInstance( CLSID_SQLNCLI11,   
                          NULL,   
                          CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,IID_IDBInitialize,   
                          (void **) &pIDBInitialize);  
  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed in CoCreateInstance().\n";  
  
   // Initialize the property values needed to establish the connection.  
   for (i = 0 ; i < nInitProps ; i++ )  
      VariantInit(&InitProperties[i].vValue);  
  
   //Specify server name.  
   InitProperties[0].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE;  
   InitProperties[0].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  
  
   // Replace "MySqlServer" with proper value.  
   InitProperties[0].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"(local)");  
   InitProperties[0].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[0].colid = DB_NULLID;  
  
   // Specify database name.  
   InitProperties[1].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG;  
   InitProperties[1].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  
   InitProperties[1].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"AdventureWorks");  
   InitProperties[1].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[1].colid = DB_NULLID;  
  
   InitProperties[2].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED;  
   InitProperties[2].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  
   InitProperties[2].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"SSPI");  
   InitProperties[2].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[2].colid = DB_NULLID;  
  
   // Properties are set, construct the DBPROPSET structure (rgInitPropSet) used to pass   
   // an array of // DBPROP structures (InitProperties) to the SetProperties method.  
   rgInitPropSet[0].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_DBINIT;  
   rgInitPropSet[0].cProperties = 4;  
   rgInitPropSet[0].rgProperties = InitProperties;  
  
   // Set initialization properties.  
   hr = pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface( IID_IDBProperties, (void **)&pIDBProperties);  
   if ( FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to obtain IDBProperties interface.\n";  
  
   hr = pIDBProperties->SetProperties( nPropSet, rgInitPropSet);  
   if (FAILED(hr))   
      cout << "Failed to set initialization properties.\n";  
  
   pIDBProperties->Release();  
  
   // Now establish a connection to the data source.  
   if ( FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Initialize()) )  
      cout << "Problem in initializing.\n";  
}  
USE AdventureWorks  
DROP PROCEDURE myProc  
GO  

另请参阅

处理结果操作指南主题 (OLE DB)