Connect Raspberry Pi to Azure IoT Hub (Node.js)
In this tutorial, you begin by learning the basics of working with Raspberry Pi that's running Raspberry Pi OS. You then learn how to seamlessly connect your devices to the cloud by using Azure IoT Hub. For Windows 10 IoT Core samples, go to the Windows Dev Center.
What you do
Create an IoT hub.
Register a device for Pi in your IoT hub.
Set up Raspberry Pi.
Run a sample application on Pi to send sensor data to your IoT hub.
What you learn
How to create an Azure IoT hub and get your new device connection string.
How to connect Pi with a BME280 sensor.
How to collect sensor data by running a sample application on Pi.
How to send sensor data to your IoT hub.
What you need
A Raspberry Pi 2 or Raspberry Pi 3 board.
An Azure subscription. If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.
A monitor, a USB keyboard, and mouse that connects to Pi.
A Mac or PC that is running Windows or Linux.
An internet connection.
A 16 GB or above microSD card.
A USB-SD adapter or microSD card to burn the operating system image onto the microSD card.
A 5-volt 2-amp power supply with the 6-foot micro USB cable.
The following items are optional:
An assembled Adafruit BME280 temperature, pressure, and humidity sensor.
6 F/M jumper wires.
A diffused 10-mm LED.
If you don't have the optional items, you can use simulated sensor data.
Create an IoT hub
This section describes how to create an IoT hub using the Azure portal.
Sign in to the Azure portal.
On the Azure homepage, select the + Create a resource button.
From the Categories menu, select Internet of Things, and then select IoT Hub.
On the Basics tab, complete the fields as follows:
Because the IoT hub will be publicly discoverable as a DNS endpoint, be sure to avoid entering any sensitive or personally identifiable information when you name it.
Property Value Subscription Select the subscription to use for your hub. Resource group Select a resource group or create a new one. To create a new one, select Create new and fill in the name you want to use. IoT hub name Enter a name for your hub. This name must be globally unique, with a length between 3 and 50 alphanumeric characters. The name can also include the dash (
Region Select the region, closest to you, where you want your hub to be located. Some features, such as IoT Hub device streams, are only available in specific regions. For these limited features, you must select one of the supported regions. Tier Select the tier that you want to use for your hub. Tier selection depends on how many features you want and how many messages you send through your solution per day.
The free tier is intended for testing and evaluation. The free tier allows 500 devices to be connected to the hub and up to 8,000 messages per day. Each Azure subscription can create one IoT hub in the free tier.
To compare the features available to each tier, select Compare tiers. For more information, see Choose the right IoT Hub tier for your solution.
Daily message limit Select the maximum daily quota of messages for your hub. The available options depend on the tier you've selected for your hub. To see the available messaging and pricing options, select See all options and select the option that best matches the needs of your hub. For more information, see IoT Hub quotas and throttling.
Prices shown are for example purposes only.
Select Next: Networking to continue creating your hub.
On the Networking tab, complete the fields as follows:
Property Value Connectivity configuration Choose the endpoints that devices can use to connect to your IoT hub. Accept the default setting, Public access, for this example. You can change this setting after the IoT hub is created. For more information, see Managing public network access for your IoT hub. Minimum TLS Version Select the minimum TLS version to be supported by your IoT hub. Once the IoT hub is created, this value can't be changed. Accept the default setting, 1.0, for this example.
Select Next: Management to continue creating your hub.
On the Management tab, accept the default settings. If desired, you can modify any of the following fields:
Property Value Permission model Part of role-based access control, this property decides how you manage access to your IoT hub. Allow shared access policies or choose only role-based access control. For more information, see Control access to IoT Hub by using Microsoft Entra ID. Assign me You may need access to IoT Hub data APIs to manage elements within an instance. If you have access to role assignments, select IoT Hub Data Contributor role to grant yourself full access to the data APIs.
To assign Azure roles, you must have
Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments/writepermissions, such as User Access Administrator or Owner.
Device-to-cloud partitions This property relates the device-to-cloud messages to the number of simultaneous readers of the messages. Most IoT hubs need only four partitions.
Select Next: Add-ons to continue to the next screen.
On the Add-ons tab, accept the default settings. If desired, you can modify any of the following fields:
Property Value Enable Device Update for IoT Hub Turn on Device Update for IoT Hub to enable over-the-air updates for your devices. If you select this option, you're prompted to provide information to provision a Device Update for IoT Hub account and instance. For more information, see What is Device Update for IoT Hub? Enable Defender for IoT Turn Defender for IoT on to add an extra layer of protection to IoT and your devices. This option isn't available for hubs in the free tier. Learn more about security recommendations for IoT Hub in Defender for IoT.
Prices shown are for example purposes only.
Select Next: Tags to continue to the next screen.
Tags are name/value pairs. You can assign the same tag to multiple resources and resource groups to categorize resources and consolidate billing. In this document, you won't be adding any tags. For more information, see Use tags to organize your Azure resources.
Select Next: Review + create to review your choices.
Select Create to start the deployment of your new hub. Your deployment will be in progress a few minutes while the hub is being created. Once the deployment is complete, select Go to resource to open the new hub.
Register a new device in the IoT hub
In this section, you create a device identity in the identity registry in your IoT hub. A device can't connect to a hub unless it has an entry in the identity registry. For more information, see the IoT Hub developer guide.
In your IoT hub navigation menu, open Devices, then select Add Device to add a device in your IoT hub.
In Create a device, provide a name for your new device, such as myDeviceId, and select Save. This action creates a device identity for your IoT hub. Leave Auto-generate keys checked so that the primary and secondary keys will be generated automatically.
The device ID may be visible in the logs collected for customer support and troubleshooting, so make sure to avoid any sensitive information while naming it.
After the device is created, open the device from the list in the Devices pane. Copy the value of Primary connection string. This connection string is used by device code to communicate with the IoT hub.
By default, the keys and connection strings are masked because they're sensitive information. If you click the eye icon, they're revealed. It's not necessary to reveal them to copy them with the copy button.
The IoT Hub identity registry only stores device identities to enable secure access to the IoT hub. It stores device IDs and keys to use as security credentials, and an enabled/disabled flag that you can use to disable access for an individual device. If your application needs to store other device-specific metadata, it should use an application-specific store. For more information, see IoT Hub developer guide.
Set up Raspberry Pi
Install the Raspberry Pi OS
Prepare the microSD card for installation of the Raspberry Pi OS image.
Download Raspberry Pi OS with desktop.
a. Raspberry Pi OS with desktop (the .zip file).
b. Extract the Raspberry Pi OS with desktop image to a folder on your computer.
Install Raspberry Pi OS with desktop to the microSD card.
b. Run Etcher and select the Raspberry Pi OS with desktop image that you extracted in step 1.
c. Select the microSD card drive. Etcher may have already selected the correct drive.
d. Click Flash to install Raspberry Pi OS with desktop to the microSD card.
e. Remove the microSD card from your computer when installation is complete. It's safe to remove the microSD card directly because Etcher automatically ejects or unmounts the microSD card upon completion.
f. Insert the microSD card into Pi.
Enable SSH and I2C
Connect Pi to the monitor, keyboard, and mouse.
Start Pi and then sign into Raspberry Pi OS by using
pias the user name and
raspberryas the password.
Click the Raspberry icon > Preferences > Raspberry Pi Configuration.
On the Interfaces tab, set SSH and I2C to Enable, and then click OK.
Interface Description SSH Secure Shell (SSH) is used to remote into the Raspberry Pi with a remote command-line. This is the preferred method for issuing the commands to your Raspberry Pi remotely in this document. I2C Inter-integrated Circuit (I2C) is a communications protocol used to interface with hardware such as sensors. This interface is required for interfacing with physical sensors in this topic.
If you don't have physical sensors and want to use simulated sensor data from your Raspberry Pi device, you can leave I2C disabled.
Connect the sensor to Pi
Use the breadboard and jumper wires to connect an LED and a BME280 to Pi as follows. If you don't have the sensor, skip this section.
The BME280 sensor can collect temperature and humidity data. The LED blinks when the device sends a message to the cloud.
For sensor pins, use the following wiring:
|Start (Sensor & LED)||End (Board)||Cable Color|
|VDD (Pin 5G)||3.3V PWR (Pin 1)||White cable|
|GND (Pin 7G)||GND (Pin 6)||Brown cable|
|SDI (Pin 10G)||I2C1 SDA (Pin 3)||Red cable|
|SCK (Pin 8G)||I2C1 SCL (Pin 5)||Orange cable|
|LED VDD (Pin 18F)||GPIO 24 (Pin 18)||White cable|
|LED GND (Pin 17F)||GND (Pin 20)||Black cable|
Click to view Raspberry Pi 2 & 3 pin mappings for your reference.
After you've successfully connected BME280 to your Raspberry Pi, it should be like below image.
Connect Pi to the network
Turn on Pi by using the micro USB cable and the power supply. Use the Ethernet cable to connect Pi to your wired network or follow the instructions from the Raspberry Pi Foundation to connect Pi to your wireless network. After your Pi has been successfully connected to the network, you need to take a note of the IP address of your Pi.
Make sure that Pi is connected to the same network as your computer. For example, if your computer is connected to a wireless network while Pi is connected to a wired network, you might not see the IP address in the devdisco output.
Run a sample application on Pi
Clone sample application and install the prerequisite packages
Connect to your Raspberry Pi with one of the following SSH clients from your host computer:
a. Download and install PuTTY for Windows.
b. Copy the IP address of your Pi into the Host name (or IP address) section and select SSH as the connection type.
Mac and Ubuntu Users
Use the built-in SSH client on Ubuntu or macOS. You might need to run
ssh pi@<ip address of pi>to connect Pi via SSH.
The default username is
piand the password is
Install Node.js and npm to your Pi.
First check your Node.js version.
If the version is lower than 10.x, or if there is no Node.js on your Pi, install the latest version.
curl -sSL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_16.x | sudo -E bash sudo apt-get -y install nodejs
Clone the sample application.
git clone https://github.com/Azure-Samples/azure-iot-samples-node.git
Install all packages for the sample. The installation includes Azure IoT device SDK, BME280 Sensor library, and Wiring Pi library.
cd azure-iot-samples-node/iot-hub/Tutorials/RaspberryPiApp npm install
It might take several minutes to finish this installation process depending on your network connection.
Configure the sample application
Open the config file by running the following commands:
There are two items in this file you can configure. The first one is
interval, which defines the time interval (in milliseconds) between messages sent to the cloud. The second one is
simulatedData, which is a Boolean value for whether to use simulated sensor data or not.
If you don't have the sensor, set the
trueto make the sample application create and use simulated sensor data.
Note: The i2c address used in this tutorial is 0x77 by default. Depending on your configuration it might also be 0x76: if you encounter an i2c error, try to change the value to 118 and see if that works better. To see what address is used by your sensor, run
sudo i2cdetect -y 1in a shell on the raspberry pi
Save and exit by typing Control-O > Enter > Control-X.
Run the sample application
Run the sample application by running the following command:
sudo node index.js '<YOUR AZURE IOT HUB DEVICE CONNECTION STRING>'
Make sure you copy-paste the device connection string into the single quotes.
You should see the following output that shows the sensor data and the messages that are sent to your IoT hub.
Read the messages received by your hub
One way to monitor messages received by your IoT hub from your device is to use the Azure IoT Hub extension for Visual Studio Code. To learn more, see Use the Azure IoT Hub extension for Visual Studio Code to send and receive messages between your device and IoT Hub.
For more ways to process data sent by your device, continue on to the next section.
Clean up resources
You can use the resources created in this topic with other tutorials and quickstarts in this document set. If you plan to continue on to work with other quickstarts or with the tutorials, do not clean up the resources created in this topic. If you do not plan to continue, use the following steps to delete all resources created by this topic in the Azure portal.
- From the left-hand menu in the Azure portal, select All resources and then select the IoT Hub you created.
- At the top of the IoT Hub overview pane, click Delete.
- Enter your hub name and click Delete again to confirm permanently deleting the IoT hub.
You've run a sample application to collect sensor data and send it to your IoT hub.
To continue to get started with Azure IoT Hub and to explore all extended IoT scenarios, see the following: