Reliable Services notifications

Notifications allow clients to track the changes that are being made to an object that they're interested in. Two types of objects support notifications: Reliable State Manager and Reliable Dictionary.

Common reasons for using notifications are:

  • Building materialized views, such as secondary indexes or aggregated filtered views of the replica's state. An example is a sorted index of all keys in Reliable Dictionary.
  • Sending monitoring data, such as the number of users added in the last hour.

Notifications are fired as a part of applying operations. On a primary replica, operations are applied after quorum acknowledgment as a part of transaction.CommitAsync() or this.StateManager.GetOrAddAsync(). On secondary replicas, operations are applied at replication queue data processing. Because of that, notifications should be handled as fast as possible, and synchronous events shouldn't include any expensive operations. Otherwise, it could negatively impact transaction processing time as well as replica build-ups.

Reliable State Manager notifications

Reliable State Manager provides notifications for the following events:

  • Transaction
    • Commit
  • State manager
    • Rebuild
    • Addition of a reliable state
    • Removal of a reliable state

Reliable State Manager tracks the current inflight transactions. The only change in transaction state that causes a notification to be fired is a transaction being committed.

Reliable State Manager maintains a collection of reliable states like Reliable Dictionary and Reliable Queue. Reliable State Manager fires notifications when this collection changes: a reliable state is added or removed, or the entire collection is rebuilt. The Reliable State Manager collection is rebuilt in three cases:

  • Recovery: When a replica starts, it recovers its previous state from the disk. At the end of recovery, it uses NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to fire an event that contains the set of recovered reliable states.
  • Full copy: Before a replica can join the configuration set, it has to be built. Sometimes, this requires a full copy of Reliable State Manager's state from the primary replica to be applied to the idle secondary replica. Reliable State Manager on the secondary replica uses NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to fire an event that contains the set of reliable states that it acquired from the primary replica.
  • Restore: In disaster recovery scenarios, the replica's state can be restored from a backup via RestoreAsync. In such cases, Reliable State Manager on the primary replica uses NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to fire an event that contains the set of reliable states that it restored from the backup.

To register for transaction notifications and/or state manager notifications, you need to register with the TransactionChanged or StateManagerChanged events on Reliable State Manager. A common place to register with these event handlers is the constructor of your stateful service. When you register on the constructor, you won't miss any notification that's caused by a change during the lifetime of IReliableStateManager.

public MyService(StatefulServiceContext context)
    : base(MyService.EndpointName, context, CreateReliableStateManager(context))
    this.StateManager.TransactionChanged += this.OnTransactionChangedHandler;
    this.StateManager.StateManagerChanged += this.OnStateManagerChangedHandler;

The TransactionChanged event handler uses NotifyTransactionChangedEventArgs to provide details about the event. It contains the action property (for example, NotifyTransactionChangedAction.Commit) that specifies the type of change. It also contains the transaction property that provides a reference to the transaction that changed.


Today, TransactionChanged events are raised only if the transaction is committed. The action is then equal to NotifyTransactionChangedAction.Commit. But in the future, events might be raised for other types of transaction state changes. We recommend checking the action and processing the event only if it's one that you expect.

Following is an example TransactionChanged event handler.

private void OnTransactionChangedHandler(object sender, NotifyTransactionChangedEventArgs e)
    if (e.Action == NotifyTransactionChangedAction.Commit)
        this.lastCommitLsn = e.Transaction.CommitSequenceNumber;
        this.lastTransactionId = e.Transaction.TransactionId;


The StateManagerChanged event handler uses NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to provide details about the event. NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs has two subclasses: NotifyStateManagerRebuildEventArgs and NotifyStateManagerSingleEntityChangedEventArgs. You use the action property in NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to cast NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs to the correct subclass:

  • NotifyStateManagerChangedAction.Rebuild: NotifyStateManagerRebuildEventArgs
  • NotifyStateManagerChangedAction.Add and NotifyStateManagerChangedAction.Remove: NotifyStateManagerSingleEntityChangedEventArgs

Following is an example StateManagerChanged notification handler.

public void OnStateManagerChangedHandler(object sender, NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs e)
    if (e.Action == NotifyStateManagerChangedAction.Rebuild)



Reliable Dictionary notifications

Reliable Dictionary provides notifications for the following events:

  • Rebuild: Called when ReliableDictionary has recovered its state from a recovered or copied local state or backup.
  • Clear: Called when the state of ReliableDictionary has been cleared through the ClearAsync method.
  • Add: Called when an item has been added to ReliableDictionary.
  • Update: Called when an item in IReliableDictionary has been updated.
  • Remove: Called when an item in IReliableDictionary has been deleted.

To get Reliable Dictionary notifications, you need to register with the DictionaryChanged event handler on IReliableDictionary. A common place to register with these event handlers is in the ReliableStateManager.StateManagerChanged add notification. Registering when IReliableDictionary is added to IReliableStateManager ensures that you won't miss any notifications.

private void ProcessStateManagerSingleEntityNotification(NotifyStateManagerChangedEventArgs e)
    var operation = e as NotifyStateManagerSingleEntityChangedEventArgs;

    if (operation.Action == NotifyStateManagerChangedAction.Add)
        if (operation.ReliableState is IReliableDictionary<TKey, TValue>)
            var dictionary = (IReliableDictionary<TKey, TValue>)operation.ReliableState;
            dictionary.RebuildNotificationAsyncCallback = this.OnDictionaryRebuildNotificationHandlerAsync;
            dictionary.DictionaryChanged += this.OnDictionaryChangedHandler;


ProcessStateManagerSingleEntityNotification is the sample method that the preceding OnStateManagerChangedHandler example calls.

The preceding code sets the IReliableNotificationAsyncCallback interface, along with DictionaryChanged. Because NotifyDictionaryRebuildEventArgs contains an IAsyncEnumerable interface--which needs to be enumerated asynchronously--rebuild notifications are fired through RebuildNotificationAsyncCallback instead of OnDictionaryChangedHandler.

public async Task OnDictionaryRebuildNotificationHandlerAsync(
    IReliableDictionary<TKey, TValue> origin,
    NotifyDictionaryRebuildEventArgs<TKey, TValue> rebuildNotification)

    var enumerator = e.State.GetAsyncEnumerator();
    while (await enumerator.MoveNextAsync(CancellationToken.None))
        this.secondaryIndex.Add(enumerator.Current.Key, enumerator.Current.Value);


In the preceding code, as part of processing the rebuild notification, first the maintained aggregated state is cleared. Because the reliable collection is being rebuilt with a new state, all previous notifications are irrelevant.

The DictionaryChanged event handler uses NotifyDictionaryChangedEventArgs to provide details about the event. NotifyDictionaryChangedEventArgs has five subclasses. Use the action property in NotifyDictionaryChangedEventArgs to cast NotifyDictionaryChangedEventArgs to the correct subclass:

  • NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Rebuild: NotifyDictionaryRebuildEventArgs
  • NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Clear: NotifyDictionaryClearEventArgs
  • NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Add: NotifyDictionaryItemAddedEventArgs
  • NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Update: NotifyDictionaryItemUpdatedEventArgs
  • NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Remove: NotifyDictionaryItemRemovedEventArgs
public void OnDictionaryChangedHandler(object sender, NotifyDictionaryChangedEventArgs<TKey, TValue> e)
    switch (e.Action)
        case NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Clear:
            var clearEvent = e as NotifyDictionaryClearEventArgs<TKey, TValue>;

        case NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Add:
            var addEvent = e as NotifyDictionaryItemAddedEventArgs<TKey, TValue>;

        case NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Update:
            var updateEvent = e as NotifyDictionaryItemUpdatedEventArgs<TKey, TValue>;

        case NotifyDictionaryChangedAction.Remove:
            var deleteEvent = e as NotifyDictionaryItemRemovedEventArgs<TKey, TValue>;



  • Do complete notification events as fast as possible.
  • Do not execute any expensive operations (for example, I/O operations) as part of synchronous events.
  • Do check the action type before you process the event. New action types might be added in the future.

Here are some things to keep in mind:

  • Notifications are fired as part of the execution of an operation. For example, a restore notification is fired as the last step of a restore operation. A restore will not finish until the notification event is processed.
  • Because notifications are fired as part of the applying operations, clients see only notifications for locally committed operations. And because operations are guaranteed only to be locally committed (in other words, logged), they might or might not be undone in the future.
  • On the redo path, a single notification is fired for each applied operation. This means that if transaction T1 includes Create(X), Delete(X), and Create(X), you'll get one notification for the creation of X, one for the deletion, and one for the creation again, in that order.
  • For transactions that contain multiple operations, operations are applied in the order in which they were received on the primary replica from the user.
  • As part of processing false progress, some operations might be undone on secondary replicas. Notifications are raised for such undo operations, rolling the state of the replica back to a stable point. One important difference of undo notifications is that events that have duplicate keys are aggregated. For example, if transaction T1 is being undone, you'll see a single notification to Delete(X).

Next steps