Trusted Launch FAQ

Caution

This article references CentOS, a Linux distribution that is nearing End Of Life (EOL) status. Please consider your use and planning accordingly.

Frequently asked questions about trusted launch. Feature use cases, support for other Azure features, and fixes for common errors.

Use cases

Why should I use trusted launch? What does trusted launch guard against?

Trusted launch guards against boot kits, rootkits, and kernel-level malware. These sophisticated types of malware run in kernel mode and remain hidden from users. For example:

  • Firmware rootkits: these kits overwrite the firmware of the virtual machine's BIOS, so the rootkit can start before the OS.
  • Boot kits: these kits replace the OS's bootloader so that the virtual machine loads the boot kit before the OS.
  • Kernel rootkits: these kits replace a portion of the OS kernel so the rootkit can start automatically when the OS loads.
  • Driver rootkits: these kits pretend to be one of the trusted drivers that OS uses to communicate with the virtual machine's components.

How does trusted launch compare to Hyper-V Shielded VM?

Hyper-V Shielded VM is currently available on Hyper-V only. Hyper-V Shielded VM is typically deployed in with Guarded Fabric. A Guarded Fabric consists of a Host Guardian Service (HGS), one or more guarded hosts, and a set of Shielded VMs. Hyper-V Shielded VMs are used in fabrics where the data and state of the virtual machine must be protected from various actors. These actors are both fabric administrators and untrusted software that might be running on the Hyper-V hosts. Trusted launch on the other hand can be deployed as a standalone virtual machine or Virtual Machine Scale Sets on Azure without other deployment and management of HGS. All of the trusted launch features can be enabled with a simple change in deployment code or a checkbox on the Azure portal.

Can I disable Trusted Launch for new VM deployment?

Trusted Launch VMs provide you with foundational compute security and our recommendation isn't to disable same for new VM/VMSS deployments except if your deployments have dependency on:

You can use parameter securityType with value Standard to disable Trusted Launch in new VM/VMSS deployments using Azure PowerShell (v10.3.0+) and CLI (v2.53.0+)

az vm create -n MyVm -g MyResourceGroup --image Ubuntu2204 `
    --security-type 'Standard'

Supported features and deployments

Trusted launch now allows images to be created and shared through the Azure Compute Gallery (formerly Shared Image Gallery). The image source can be:

  • an existing Azure VM that is either generalized or specialized OR,
  • an existing managed disk or a snapshot OR,
  • a VHD or an image version from another gallery.

For more information about deploying Trusted Launch VM using Azure Compute Gallery, see deploy Trusted Launch VMs.

Is Azure Backup supported by trusted launch?

Trusted launch now supports Azure Backup. For more information, see Support matrix for Azure VM backup.

Will Azure Backup continue working after enabling trusted launch?

Backups configured with enhanced policy will continue to take backup of VM after enabling Trusted Launch.

Are Ephemeral OS disks supported by trusted launch?

Trusted launch supports ephemeral OS disks. For more information, see Trusted Launch for Ephemeral OS disks.

Note

While using ephemeral disks for Trusted Launch VMs, keys and secrets generated or sealed by the vTPM after the creation of the VM may not be persisted across operations like reimaging and platform events like service healing.

Can virtual machine be restored using backup taken before enabling trusted launch?

Backups taken before upgrading existing Generation 2 VM to Trusted Launch can be used to restore entire virtual machine or individual data disks. They can't be used to restore or replace OS disk only.

How can I find VM sizes that support trusted launch?

See the list of Generation 2 VM sizes supporting Trusted launch.

The following commands can be used to check if a Generation 2 VM Size doesn't support Trusted launch.

subscription="<yourSubID>"
region="westus"
vmSize="Standard_NC12s_v3"

az vm list-skus --resource-type virtualMachines  --location $region --query "[?name=='$vmSize'].capabilities" --subscription $subscription

How can I validate that my OS image supports trusted launch?

See the list of OS versions supported with Trusted Launch,

Marketplace OS Images

The following commands can be used to check if a Marketplace OS image supports Trusted Launch.

az vm image show --urn "MicrosoftWindowsServer:WindowsServer:2022-datacenter-azure-edition:latest"

The response is similar to the following form. hyperVGeneration v2 and SecurityType contains TrustedLaunch in the output indicates that the Generation 2 OS Image supports Trusted Launch.

{
  "architecture": "x64",
  "automaticOsUpgradeProperties": {
    "automaticOsUpgradeSupported": false
  },
  "dataDiskImages": [],
  "disallowed": {
    "vmDiskType": "Unmanaged"
  },
  "extendedLocation": null,
  "features": [
    {
      "name": "SecurityType",
      "value": "TrustedLaunchAndConfidentialVmSupported"
    },
    {
      "name": "IsAcceleratedNetworkSupported",
      "value": "True"
    },
    {
      "name": "DiskControllerTypes",
      "value": "SCSI, NVMe"
    },
    {
      "name": "IsHibernateSupported",
      "value": "True"
    }
  ],
  "hyperVGeneration": "V2",
  "id": "/Subscriptions/00000000-0000-0000-0000-00000000000/Providers/Microsoft.Compute/Locations/westus/Publishers/MicrosoftWindowsServer/ArtifactTypes/VMImage/Offers/WindowsServer/Skus/2022-datacenter-azure-edition/Versions/20348.1906.230803",
  "imageDeprecationStatus": {
    "alternativeOption": null,
    "imageState": "Active",
    "scheduledDeprecationTime": null
  },
  "location": "westus",
  "name": "20348.1906.230803",
  "osDiskImage": {
    "operatingSystem": "Windows",
    "sizeInGb": 127
  },
  "plan": null,
  "tags": null
}

The following commands can be used to check if a Azure Compute Gallery OS image supports Trusted Launch.

az sig image-definition show `
    --gallery-image-definition myImageDefinition `
    --gallery-name myImageGallery `
    --resource-group myImageGalleryRg

The response is similar to the following form. hyperVGeneration v2 and SecurityType contains TrustedLaunch in the output indicates that the Generation 2 OS Image supports Trusted Launch.

{
  "architecture": "x64",
  "features": [
    {
      "name": "SecurityType",
      "value": "TrustedLaunchSupported"
    }
  ],
  "hyperVGeneration": "V2",
  "id": "/subscriptions/00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000/resourceGroups/myImageGalleryRg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/myImageGallery/images/myImageDefinition",
  "identifier": {
    "offer": "myImageDefinition",
    "publisher": "myImageDefinition",
    "sku": "myImageDefinition"
  },
  "location": "westus3",
  "name": "myImageDefinition",
  "osState": "Generalized",
  "osType": "Windows",
  "provisioningState": "Succeeded",
  "recommended": {
    "memory": {
      "max": 32,
      "min": 1
    },
    "vCPUs": {
      "max": 16,
      "min": 1
    }
  },
  "resourceGroup": "myImageGalleryRg",
  "tags": {},
  "type": "Microsoft.Compute/galleries/images"
}

How external communication drivers work with Trusted Launch VMs ?

Adding COM ports requires disabling Secure Boot. Hence, COM ports are disabled by default in Trusted Launch VMs.

Power states

Feature specific states, boot types, and common boot issues.

What is VM Guest State (VMGS)?

VM Guest State (VMGS) is specific to Trusted Launch VM. It's a blob managed by Azure and contains the unified extensible firmware interface (UEFI) secure boot signature databases and other security information. The lifecycle of the VMGS blob is tied to that of the OS Disk.

What are the differences between secure boot and measured boot?

In secure boot chain, each step in the boot process checks a cryptographic signature of the subsequent steps. For example, the BIOS checks a signature on the loader, and the loader checks signatures on all the kernel objects that it loads, and so on. If any of the objects are compromised, the signature doesn't match, and the VM doesn't boot. For more information, see Secure Boot. Measured boot doesn't halt the boot process, it measures or computes the hash of the next objects in the chain and stores the hashes in the Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) on the vTPM. Measured boot records are used for boot integrity monitoring.

Why is Trusted Launch Virtual Machine not booting correctly?

If unsigned components are detected from the UEFI (guest firmware), bootloader, operating system, or boot drivers, a Trusted Launch Virtual Machine won't boot. The secure boot setting in the Trusted Launch virtual machine fails to boot if unsigned or untrusted boot components are encountered during the boot process and will report as a secure boot failure.

The trusted launch pipeline from secure boot to third party drivers

Note

Trusted Launch Virtual machines that are created directly from an Azure Marketplace image should not encounter Secure Boot failures. Azure Compute Gallery images with an original image source of Marketplace, and snapshots created from Trusted Launch VMs should also not encounter these errors.

How would I verify a no-boot scenario in the Azure portal?

When a virtual machine becomes unavailable from a Secure Boot failure, 'no-boot' means that virtual machine has an operating system component that is signed by a trusted authority, which blocks booting a Trusted Launch VM. On VM deployment, customers may see information from resource health within the Azure portal stating that there's a validation error in secure boot.

To access resource health from the virtual machine configuration page, navigate to Resource Health under the 'Help' panel.

A resource health error message alerting a failed secure boot.

Follow the 'Recommended Steps' outlined in the resource health screen. Instructions include a screenshot and downloadable serial log from the boot diagnostics of the virtual machine.

If you verified the no-boot was caused by a secure boot failure:

  1. The image you're using is an older version that may have one or more untrusted boot components and is on a deprecation path. To remedy an outdated image, update to a supported newer image version.
  2. The image you're using may have been built outside of a marketplace source or the boot components have been modified and contain unsigned or untrusted boot components. To verify if your image has unsigned or untrusted boot components, refer to 'Verifying secure boot failures'.
  3. If the above two scenarios don't apply, the virtual machine is potentially infected with malware (bootkit/rootkit). Consider deleting the virtual machine and re-creating a new VM from the same source image while evaluating all software being installed.

Verifying secure boot failures

Linux Virtual Machines

To verify which boot components are responsible for Secure Boot failures within an Azure Linux Virtual Machine, end-users can use the SBInfo tool from the Linux Security Package.

  1. Turn off secure boot
  2. Connect to your Azure Linux Trusted Launch virtual machine.
  3. Install the SBInfo tool for the distro your virtual machine is running. It resides within the Linux Security Package

These commands apply to Ubuntu, Debian, and other debian-based distros.

echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azurecore/ trusty main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure.list

echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azurecore/ xenial main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure.list

echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azurecore/ bionic main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure.list

wget https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc

wget https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/msopentech.asc

sudo apt-key add microsoft.asc && sudo apt-key add msopentech.asc

sudo apt update && sudo apt install azure-security

After installing the Linux Security Package for your distro, run the 'sbinfo' command to verify which boot components are responsible for Secure Boot failures by displaying all unsigned modules, kernels, and bootloaders.

sudo sbinfo -u -m -k -b 

To learn more about the SBInfo diagnostic tool, you can run 'sudo sbinfo -help'.

Why am I getting a boot integrity monitoring fault?

Trusted launch for Azure virtual machines is monitored for advanced threats. If such threats are detected, an alert is triggered. Alerts are only available if Defender for Cloud's enhanced security features are enabled.

Microsoft Defender for Cloud periodically performs attestation. If the attestation fails, a medium severity alert is triggered. Trusted launch attestation can fail for the following reasons:

  • The attested information, which includes a log of the Trusted Computing Base (TCB), deviates from a trusted baseline (like when Secure Boot is enabled). Any deviation indicates an untrusted module(s) were loaded and the OS may be compromised.
  • The attestation quote couldn't be verified to originate from the vTPM of the attested VM. The verification failure indicates a malware is present and may be intercepting traffic to the TPM.
  • The attestation extension on the VM isn't responding. An unresponsive extension indicates a denial-of-service attack by malware or an OS admin.

Certificates

How can users establish root of trust with Trusted Launch VMs?

The virtual TPM AK public certificate provides users with visibility for information on the full certificate chain (Root and Intermediate Certificates), helping them validate trust in certificate and root chain. To ensure Trusted Launch consumers continually have the highest security posture, it provides information on instance properties, so users can trace back to the full chain.

Download instructions

Package certificates, compromised of. p7b (Full Certificate Authority) and .cer (Intermediate CA), reveal the signing and certificate authority. Copy the relevant content and use certificate tooling to inspect and assess details of certificates.

Select to download the .crt below for the Azure Virtual TPM Root Certificate Authority 2023

Azure Virtual TPM Root Certificate Authority 2023

Select to view the .p7b content

Global Virtual TPM CA - 01:

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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Full Certificate Authority Details

Thumbprint # cdb9bc34197a5355f652f1583fbd4e9a1d4801f0
Serial Number # 51f431da2c92088a4e29e0d929de4aa7
Valid Until # 01/Jun/2048

Select to view the .cert content for the Root Certificate

Azure Virtual TPM Root Certificate Authority 2023

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Select to view the intermediate CA content

Intermediate Certificate Authority for TPM cert:

"Global Virtual TPM CA - XX" (intermediate CA) [.cer], 
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Intermediate Certificate Authority

Thumbprint # db1f3959dcce7091f87c43446be1f4ab2d3415b7
Serial Number # 3300000002c0d17b4b8f979c35000000000002
Valid Until # November 3rd, 2025