Refresh data from an on-premises SQL Server database

In this tutorial, you explore how to refresh a Power BI dataset from a relational database that exists on premises in your local network. Specifically, this tutorial uses a sample SQL Server database, which Power BI must access through an on-premises data gateway.

In this tutorial, you complete the following steps:

  • Create and publish a Power BI Desktop .pbix file that imports data from an on-premises SQL Server database.
  • Configure data source and dataset settings in Power BI for SQL Server connectivity through a data gateway.
  • Configure a refresh schedule to ensure your Power BI dataset has recent data.
  • Do an on-demand refresh of your dataset.
  • Review the refresh history to analyze the outcomes of past refresh cycles.
  • Clean up resources by deleting the items you created in this tutorial.



If you're not a gateway administrator, or don't want to install a gateway yourself, ask a gateway administrator in your organization to create the required data source definition to connect your dataset to your SQL Server database.

Create and publish a Power BI Desktop file

Use the following procedure to create a basic Power BI report that uses the AdventureWorksDW2017 sample database. Publish the report to the Power BI service to get a Power BI dataset, which you configure and refreshes in later steps.

  1. In Power BI Desktop, on the Home tab, select Get data > SQL Server.

  2. In the SQL Server database dialog box, enter the Server and Database (optional) names, and make sure the Data Connectivity mode is set to Import.


    If you plan to use a stored procedure, you must use Import as the Data connectivity mode.

    Screenshot of the SQL Server database dialog box.

    Optionally, under Advanced options, you could specify a SQL statement and set other options like using SQL Server Failover.

    Screenshot of SQL Server advanced options

  3. Select OK.

  4. On the next screen, verify your credentials, and then select Connect.


    If authentication fails, make sure you selected the correct authentication method and used an account with database access. In test environments, you might use Database authentication with an explicit username and password. In production environments, you typically use Windows authentication. For more assistance, see Troubleshoot refresh scenarios, or contact your database administrator.

  5. If an Encryption Support dialog box appears, select OK.

  6. In the Navigator dialog box, select the DimProduct table, and then select Load.

    Screenshot of the Navigator dialog box.

  7. In the Power BI Desktop Report view, in the Visualizations pane, select the Stacked column chart.

    Screenshot of the Visualization pane with the Stacked column chart highlighted.

  8. With the new column chart selected in the report canvas, in the Fields pane, select the EnglishProductName and ListPrice fields.

    Screenshot of the Fields pane with the EnglishProductName and ListPrice fields highlighted.

  9. Drag EndDate from the Fields pane onto Filters on this page in the Filters pane, and under Basic filtering, select the checkbox for (Blank).

    Screenshot that shows Basic filtering for Filters on this page.

    The visualization should now look similar to the following chart:

    Screenshot that shows the finished column chart.

    Notice that the Road-250 Red product has the same list price as the other Road-250 products. This price changes when you later update the data and refresh the report.

  10. Save the report with the name AdventureWorksProducts.pbix.

  11. On the Home tab, select Publish.

  12. On the Publish to Power BI screen, choose My Workspace, and then select Select. Sign in to the Power BI service if necessary.

  13. When the Success message appears, select Open 'AdventureWorksProducts.pbix' in Power BI.

    Screenshot of the Publish to Power BI screen.

Connect the dataset to the SQL Server database

In Power BI Desktop, you connected directly to your on-premises SQL Server database. In the Power BI service, you need a data gateway to act as a bridge between the cloud and your on-premises network. Follow these steps to add your on-premises SQL Server database as a data source to a gateway and connect your dataset to this data source.

  1. In the Power BI service, in the upper-right corner of the screen, select the settings gear icon and then select Settings.

    Screenshot that shows selecting Settings on the Power BI Home page.

  2. Select the Semantic models tab, and then select the AdventureWorksProducts dataset from the list of datasets.

  3. Expand Gateway connection and verify that at least one gateway is listed. If you don't see a gateway, make sure you followed the instructions to install an on-premises data gateway.

    Screenshot that shows the Gateway connection in Settings.

  4. Select the arrow toggle under Actions to expand the data sources, and then select the Add to gateway link next to your data source.

    Screenshot that shows the expanded data sources with the arrow toggle highlighted.

  5. On the New connection screen with On-premises selected, complete or verify the following fields. Most fields are already filled in.

    • Gateway cluster name: Verify or enter the gateway cluster name.
    • Connection name: Enter a name for the new connection, such as AdventureWorksProducts.
    • Connection type: Select SQL Server if not already selected.
    • Server: Verify or enter your SQL Server instance name. Must be identical to what you specified in Power BI Desktop.
    • Database: Verify or enter your SQL Server database name, such as AdventureWorksDW2017. Must be identical to what you specified in Power BI Desktop.

    Under Authentication:

    • Authentication method: Select Windows, Basic, or OAuth2, usually Windows.
    • Username and Password: Enter the credentials you use to connect to SQL Server.

    Screenshot that shows the New connection settings.

  6. Select Create.

  7. Back on the Settings screen, expand the Gateway connection section, and verify that the data gateway you configured now shows a Status of running on the machine where you installed it. Select Apply.

    Screenshot that shows applying the gateway connection.

Configure a refresh schedule

Once connected, your Power BI dataset to your SQL Server on-premises database through a data gateway, follow these steps to configure a refresh schedule. Refreshing your dataset on a scheduled basis helps ensure that your reports and dashboards have the most recent data.

  1. In the left navigation pane, expand My Workspace.

  2. In the Semantic models section, point to the AdventureWorksProducts dataset, select the Open menu three vertical dots icon, and then select Schedule refresh.


    Make sure you point to the AdventureWorksProducts dataset, not the report with the same name, which doesn't have a Schedule refresh option.

  3. In the Scheduled refresh section, under Keep your data up to date, set refresh to On.

  4. Under Refresh frequency, select Daily for this example, and then under Time, select Add another time.

    For this example, specify 6:00 AM, then select Add another time and specify 6:00 PM.

    Screenshot that shows configuring scheduled refresh.


    You can configure up to eight daily time slots if your dataset is on shared capacity, or 48 time slots on Power BI Premium.

  5. Leave the checkbox under Send refresh failure notifications to set to Semantic model owner, and select Apply.

With a configured refresh schedule, Power BI refreshes your dataset at the next scheduled time, within a margin of 15 minutes.

Do an on-demand refresh

To refresh the data anytime, such as to test your gateway and data source configuration, you can do an on-demand refresh by using the Refresh Now option in the left pane Semantic model menu. On-demand refreshes don't affect the next scheduled refresh time.

To illustrate an on-demand refresh, first change the sample data by using SSMS to update the DimProduct table in the AdventureWorksDW2017 database, as follows:

UPDATE [AdventureWorksDW2017].[dbo].[DimProduct]
SET ListPrice = 5000
WHERE EnglishProductName ='Road-250 Red, 58'

Follow these steps to make the updated data flow through the gateway connection to the dataset and into the Power BI reports:

  1. In the Power BI service, expand My Workspace in the left navigation pane.

  2. In the Semantic models section, hover over the AdventureWorksProducts dataset, select the three vertical dots Open menu icon, and then select Refresh now.

    Screenshot that shows selecting Refresh now.

    A Preparing for refresh message appears at upper right.

  3. In the Reports section of My Workspace, select AdventureWorksProducts. See how the updated data flowed through into the report, and the product with the highest list price is now Road-250 Red, 58.

    Screenshot that shows the updated column chart.

Review the refresh history

It's a good idea to periodically use the refresh history to check the outcomes of past refresh cycles. Database credentials might have expired, or the selected gateway might have been offline when a scheduled refresh was due. Follow these steps to examine the refresh history and check for issues.

  1. In the upper-right corner of the Power BI screen, select the settings gear icon and then select Settings.

  2. On the Semantic models tab, select the dataset you want to examine, such as AdventureWorksProducts.

  3. Select the Refresh history link.

    Screenshot that shows selecting the Refresh history link.

  4. On the Scheduled tab of the Refresh history dialog box, notice the past scheduled and on-demand refreshes with their Start and End times. A Status of Completed indicates that Power BI did the refreshes successfully. For failed refreshes, you can see the error message and examine error details.

    Screenshot that shows the Refresh history screen.


    The OneDrive tab is relevant only for datasets that are connected to Power BI Desktop files, Excel workbooks, or CSV files on OneDrive or SharePoint Online. For more information, see Data refresh in Power BI.

Clean up resources

Follow these instructions to clean up the resources you created for this tutorial:

  • If you don't want to use the sample data anymore, use SSMS to drop the database.
  • If you don't want to use the SQL Server data source, remove the data source from your data gateway. Also consider uninstalling the data gateway, if you installed it only for this tutorial.
  • Also delete the AdventureWorksProducts dataset and report that Power BI created when you published the AdventureWorksProducts.pbix file.

This tutorial explored how to:

  • Import data from an on-premises SQL Server database into a Power BI dataset.
  • To update reports and dashboards that use the dataset, refresh the Power BI dataset on a scheduled and on-demand basis.

Now, you can learn more about Power BI data refresh and managing data gateways and data sources.