This type of crashes are almost always a token of a bug into SQL Server. And when they are not, there is corruption. They are never the direct result of a user error. (They can be an indirect result, if you write something illegal which SQL Server does not handle correctly.)
As Viorel says, make sure that you installed the most recent Cumulative Update for the SQL Server version you are running.
The fact that it crashes from the application but not from SSMS, suggests that the crash is plan-dependent. That is, the error occurs during the execution of the query, only if you have a certain operation in the plan. Because of a difference in defaults, you typically get different cache entries for queries from the application and from SSMS. And possibly also different plans.
If you want the application going right now, you can try this:
EXEC sp_recompile aaMasProcess
This will mark all plans related to this table for recompilation, and if you are lucky, the application will no longer cause crashes. However, they may come back on a later point in time, so there is all reason to review the contents of @@version.