According to your demand, there's a group policy that can satisfy it very well: ExtensionInstallForcelist (extension ID required).
If you need help in configuring group policies, you can check Configure Microsoft Edge policy settings on Windows devices.
After successfully configured, extensions should look like this:
If the answer is helpful, please click "Accept Answer" and kindly upvote it. If you have extra questions about this answer, please click "Comment".
Note: Please follow the steps in our documentation to enable e-mail notifications if you want to receive the related email notification for this thread.