I am having the same issue with random spreadsheets that are connected via MS Query to independent spreadsheets. I tested the refresh table and it fails after 64 attempts. I have performed multiple tests on simple MS Queries and was able to refresh without fault using a loop macro from 1 to 100. Interestingly, if I have the "faulty" spreadsheet open while I run this separate MS Query spreadsheet it fails after 64 attempts. Also, even if I open the faulty spreadsheet and close it before running the simple refresh macro, it again fails.
I was only able to resolve this by rebuilding the faulty spreadsheet over again and have had no issues. The problem is I just ran into another faulty spreadsheet and believe I will be running into others.