Thank you for your update.
Based on my research, we can know:
1.Ticking the ‘Smart Card is required for interactive logon’checkbox for a user resets the password for that user to a random complex password that is unknown to anyone and the UserAccountControl attribute of the user gets the flag SMARTCARD_REQUIRED added to it.
2.In addition to this, the DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWORD flag on the account is set so that the user’s password never expires. The GINA or LogonUI components on the client check for the presence of the SMARTCARD_REQUIRED flag during an interactive logon (console or RDP) and reject the logon if it isn’t made with a smartcard when it is set for the user.
We can try the possible method in the following link.
Expire Passwords On Smart Card Only Accounts
Enforcing smart card authentication
Requiring Smart Cards for Interactive Logons
Require smart card for interactive logon random password