Thank you for reaching us!
I understand that you are trying to disconnect your device from Microsoft Entra ID to use teams as a guest on Your personal device.
By looking to the attached screenshot, it shows that your device is not joined to Microsoft Entra ID.
If your device is joined to Microsoft Entra ID, it will show as below picture.
If you are using Windows 10 Home edition Microsoft Entra ID Join will not support.
How ever if you want to use the Microsoft Teams as a guest in your personal device you don’t need to join your device to Microsoft Entra ID or disconnect from it. You can simply accept a guest invitation and sign into Microsoft Teams application with your login credentials.
I hope this answer helps! If you have any further questions, please feel free to ask.
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