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Communication between Windows Update agent and Microsoft servers occurs over HTTP or HTTPS over port 80 and 443. If you are using the update management, you can to the connectivity checks by following this document https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/automation/troubleshoot/update-agent-issues#connectivity-checks
Reference for communication issues and debugging guide https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/automation/troubleshoot/update-management#machine-unable-to-communicate
This below highlighted section of the document has the information above prerequisite URLs. and Port details documented, other than this i didn't find it elsewhere mentioned about the URLs and ports.
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