I got some details of how the dataset / linked service feature in Web Activity works.
If the contents of the body are in a JSON format, AND the a dataset it chosen, then the definition of the dataset and its associated linked service is added to the body. Sadly, this will not help put the content of the blob in the body.
As example I tested by having the web write to blob:
Then when I checked the blob the web activity URL pointed to:
This sort of thing might be useful if you wanted to tell another service how to pull data from one of your sources.
This said, I think there is a different solution. Use another web activity to fetch the contents of the JSON blob, and pass the output into the body of your PATCH web activity.