Visual Studio mainly has my head spinning, but I think the issue is that VS wants to use localdb, and is picking up an older version of SQL Server. I think that VS 2019 comes with SQL 2017 and not SQL 2019. (Because VS 2019 was released before SQL 2019 went RTM.)
Open a command-line window and run
sqllocaldb info sqllocaldb version
to see which instances versions of sqllocaldb you have installed. If you say
sqllocaldb info instance
You get more detailed info on that instance, including version.
I think Express installs sqllocaldb automatically. You could delete the instance that VS uses and create a new one based on SQL 2019. Use the help option with sqllocaldb to see the commands for this.