Installation can be executed from GUI or from terminal. When installation from GUI fails, it is a good idea to attempt the same action from the terminal where more verbose errors can be issued and more details obtained to unblock the installation.
Debian based distributions (.deb)
Install using apt:
sudo apt install ./teams-insiders_1.2.00.26154_amd64.deb
RPM based distributions (.rpm)
Option 1 - Using rpm:
sudo rpm -i ./teams-insiders-1.2.00.26154-1.x86_64.rpm
Option 2 - Using yum (Recommended):
sudo yum install ./teams-insiders-1.2.00.26154-1.x86_64.rpm
Dependencies issues can be similar to dpkg, rpm will try to install the package, but can complain about unmet dependencies, alternative is to use yum which will try to resolve the dependencies automatically.