If all your software icons changed to a single icon (Internet Explorer), this can happen suddenly and it is caused by a conflict with the .Ink extension, and also possibly the IconCache.db file.
You can use the following methods to change the icons back:
Please note: Information posted in the given link is hosted by a third party. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy and effectiveness of information.
According to your description, it seems that the update caused a lot of system errors.
I recommend you perform system restore to undo system changes to your computer without affecting your personal files, such as e‑mail, documents, or photos.
You only get a 10-day windows after installing the latest version of Windows, so act quickly if your system starts having major issues..
Open the Windows 10 Settings Menu by clicking the gear icon in the Windows Start menu, or by pressing “Windows+I” keys.
Click “Update & security”
Click the “Recovery” tab on the sidebar
Under “Go back to the previous version of Windows 10,” click “Get started.”
Follow the remaining on-screen instructions to complete the rollback.
For your reference:
Recovery options in Windows 10
Hope above information can help you.
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