If you want to set the restriction for part of a shared Excel file, I suggest you use the "Allow Edit Ranges" feature in Excel.
As the OneDrive settings I find, such as "information barriers", are for the whole Excel file or a folder.
To use "Allow Edit Ranges" in Excel, you may refer to "Allow specific users to edit ranges in a protected spreadsheet". Then you may let these specific users know the password. Once they enter the password on the windows like following image, they could edit the specific ranges.
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Besides, "Allow Edit Ranges" feature is not available for Excel Online yet, even user has a password, they cannot edit this Excel file online.
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