Last night I tested renaming another computer locally (which was properly AAD-joined and Intune-enrolled), and it new name did flow to AAD and Intune subsequently.
Suppose something from the mess-up of the failure enrollment attempt (as indicated above, because Intune subscription was not active during that time) prevents AAD or Intune from picking up the name change from client side. Suspect it cannot synchronise a truck load more of device management data as well because of this.
Even if Intune enrollment was messed up, I'd at least expected the computer to continue syncing with AAD since it was properly joined to it. But that does not seem to be the case with this example.
From the IT administrator side, there's no means from the portal UIs to try and "repair" these corrupted records; the only visible course of actions are to just delete them cleanly off Intune and AAD, and start all over again with Windows Autopilot or manual AAD join + enroll.