Hi @Pradhumn Sharma , welcome to Microsoft Q&A forum.
From the problem description we understand that you are having 2 queries, first is related to configuring Azure MySQL Server and second one is related to SQL server on-premise installation.
Let us go through the first query for Azure MySQL.
A virtual core (vCore) represents a logical CPU and offers you the option to choose between generations of hardware and the physical characteristics of the hardware (for example, the number of cores, the memory, and the storage size). So when we select a pricing tier and vCore, in the background azure selects the respective hardware that would support this configuration. Different logical CPUs are chosen based on the region we select like GEN4 or GEN5.
The storage you provision is the amount of storage capacity available to your Azure Database for MySQL server. The storage is used for the database files, temporary files, transaction logs, and the MySQL server logs. The total amount of storage you provision also defines the I/O capacity available to your server.
VCores and storage are linked and based on vCore we select we can have storage limits.
More detailed description is available on below link:
Azure Database for MySQL pricing tiers
Regarding 2nd query on SQL Server installation. If we select the SQL Server 2019 installation, based on edition we select there is different database size limit allowed.
As an example, enterprise edition will support 524 PB of database size while express edition will support 10 GB. We can refer to below link for more details:
Please let us know if this answers your query or else we can discuss further on the same. If answer helps, you can mark it 'Accept Answer'.