I was able to get all our affected users back online with their FSLogix profile, but this may not be a permanent fix to the underlying issue. We still do not know what the root cause is; why it's affecting only certain users not being able to log in with their FSLogix profile.
However, when he logs in, his profile is still not there. Which means, the link above may have fixed the temp profile issue, but now he's getting a new FSLogix profile instead of his original one. This can cause some confusion as the temp profile and a new FSLogic profile looks exactly the same.
To test and make sure they are at least logging in with an FSLogix profile; I tested user AB, he logged in, and it showed that FSLogix profile was active, so he is no longer on a temporary profile. We have him created some test folders/files and add background image. Have him logged off, then log back in. All the changes were saved. Once this is confirmed, I go into the Azure fileshare, delete his VHD file, and then recover a previous backup of his VHD from the time it was working. After successfully recovering his working VHD file from a previous state, I have user AB log back in and now his original FSLogix profile loads correctly.